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August 18, 2020 (TORONTO) — Canada how long does cialis work Health Infoway (Infoway) and Loblaw Companies Limited (Loblaw) are pleased cialis best price to announce that they have reached an agreement to advance e-prescribing in Canada. Under the agreement, Shoppers Drug Mart, Loblaw retail pharmacies and QHR Technologies’ AccuroEMR®, Canada’s largest single electronic medical record platform, will work towards connecting with PrescribeIT®, Infoway’s national e-prescribing service.As a first step in the initiative, Shoppers Drug Mart and Loblaw will begin to roll out PrescribeIT® in pharmacies already using software that is integrated with PrescribeIT®. “This agreement will accelerate the adoption of e-prescribing in Canada, bringing significant benefits to patients, prescribers and health care systems across the country,” said Ashesh Desai, Executive Vice President Pharmacy and Healthcare Businesses at Shoppers Drug Mart.“PrescribeIT® has shown tremendous momentum since it launched,” said Michael Green, President and CEO of cialis best price Infoway.

€œThis is an important expansion for PrescribeIT® and will help extend the benefits of the service more broadly.”Loblaw will continue to operate FreedomRx, the e-prescribing and messaging platform that is currently available predominantly to Loblaw and Shoppers Drug Mart pharmacies and physicians using AccuroEMR® as their electronic medical records system.About Canada Health InfowayInfoway helps to improve the health of Canadians by working with partners to accelerate the development, adoption and effective use of digital health across Canada. Through our investments, we help deliver better quality and access to care and more efficient delivery of health services for patients and cialis best price clinicians. Infoway is an independent, not-for-profit organization funded by the federal government.

Visit www.infoway-inforoute.ca.About PrescribeIT®Canada Health Infoway is working with Health Canada, the provinces and territories, and industry stakeholders to develop, operate and maintain the national e-prescribing service known as PrescribeIT® cialis best price. PrescribeIT® will serve all Canadians, pharmacies and prescribers and provide safer and more effective medication management by enabling prescribers to transmit a prescription electronically between a prescriber’s electronic medical record (EMR) and the pharmacy management system (PMS) of a patient’s pharmacy of choice. PrescribeIT® will cialis best price protect Canadians’ personal health information from being sold or used for commercial activities.

Visit www.PrescribeIT.ca.About Loblaw Companies LimitedLoblaw is Canada's food and pharmacy leader, and the nation's largest retailer. Loblaw provides cialis best price Canadians with grocery, pharmacy, health and beauty, apparel, general merchandise, financial services and wireless mobile products and services. With more than 2,400 corporate, franchised and Associate-owned locations, Loblaw, its franchisees and associate-owners employ approximately 200,000 full- and part-time employees, making it one of Canada's largest private sector employers.Loblaw's purpose – Live Life Well® – puts first the needs and well-being of Canadians who make one billion transactions annually in the company's stores.

Loblaw is positioned to meet and exceed those cialis best price needs in many ways. Convenient locations. More than 1,050 grocery stores that span the value spectrum from cialis best price discount to specialty.

Full-service pharmacies at nearly 1,400 Shoppers Drug Mart® and Pharmaprix® locations and close to 500 Loblaw locations. PC Financial® cialis best price services. Affordable Joe Fresh® fashion and family apparel.

And three of Canada's top-consumer brands in Life Brand, no name® cialis best price and President's Choice. For more information, visit Loblaw's website at www.loblaw.ca.-30-Media Inquiries Catherine ParrySenior Director, Marketing &. CommunicationsCanada Health Infoway(647) 267-7013 Email UsFollow @InfowayCatherine ThomasSenior Director, External CommunicationLoblaw Companies Limited This email address is being protected from spambots.

You need JavaScript enabled cialis best price to view it.Inquiries about PrescribeIT®July 22, 2020 (Toronto) – Rexall Pharmacy Group Ltd. (Rexall) and Canada Health Infoway (Infoway) are pleased to announce that PrescribeIT®, Infoway’s national e-prescribing service, will soon become available in more than 250 Rexall pharmacies across Canada. PrescribeIT® enables prescribers cialis best price and pharmacists to electronically create, receive, renew and cancel prescriptions, while improving overall patient care through secure clinician messaging.“Rexall is an important addition to the PrescribeIT® roster of partners and we are very pleased to have them on board,” noted Jamie Bruce, Executive Vice President, Canada Health Infoway.

€œTogether we can help improve patient care through more effective medication management.”“At Rexall, we strive to build partnerships aimed at providing our pharmacists with innovative solutions to help improve overall patient care,” said Nicolas Caprio, President, Rexall. €œPrescribeIT® is a great opportunity for us to continue strengthening our digital offering, allowing pharmacists and physicians to increase their cialis best price communication and ultimately positively impact patient health.”In anticipation of the agreement, Rexall has already introduced the service in key locations in Ontario, Alberta and New Brunswick. Additional sites will start to offer PrescribeIT® starting in the next several weeks.About Canada Health InfowayInfoway helps to improve the health of Canadians by working with partners to accelerate the development, adoption and effective use of digital health across Canada.

Through our investments, we help deliver better quality and access to care and more efficient delivery of health services for patients and clinicians cialis best price. Infoway is an independent, not-for-profit organization funded by the federal government. Visit www.infoway.ca.About PrescribeIT®Canada Health Infoway is working with Health Canada, the provinces and territories, and industry stakeholders to develop, operate and maintain the national e-prescribing service known as PrescribeIT® cialis best price.

PrescribeIT® will serve all Canadians, pharmacies and prescribers and provide safer and more effective medication management by enabling prescribers to transmit a prescription electronically between a prescriber’s electronic medical record (EMR) and the pharmacy management system (PMS) of a patient’s pharmacy of choice. PrescribeIT® will cialis best price protect Canadians’ personal health information from being sold or used for commercial activities. Visit www.prescribeit.ca.About Rexall Pharmacy Group Ltd.With a heritage dating back over a century, Rexall is a leading drugstore operator with a dynamic history of innovation and growth, dedicated to caring for Canadians’ health…one person at a time.

Operating over 400 pharmacies cialis best price across Canada, Rexall’s 8,500 employees provide exceptional patient care and customer service. Rexall is part of the Rexall Pharmacy Group Ltd. And a proud member cialis best price of the global McKesson Corporation family.

For more information, visit rexall.ca. Follow us cialis best price on Twitter. @RexallDrugstore, on Instagram at @RexallDrugstoreOfficial and on Facebook at @RexallDrugstore.-30-Media Inquiries Catherine ParrySenior Director, Marketing &.

CommunicationsCanada Health Infoway(647) 267-7013 Email UsFollow @InfowayInquiries about PrescribeIT®Inquiries about McKesson CanadaAndrew ForgioneDirector, Media Relations and Public AffairsMcKesson Canada(905) 671-4586.

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The Mental Health Data Explorer presents survey results on mental health status, risk of problematic substance how much cialis should i take use, loneliness, informal help-seeking and access to see here mental health and addictions services for both adults and children. Results are available by gender, age group, ethnic group and neighbourhood deprivation. Use our Mental Health Data Explorer to see results how much cialis should i take from the mental health module of the 2016/17 New Zealand Health Survey or to download the published data as a .csv file. The 2016/17 mental health module included three internationally used tools to assess mental health and substance use.

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Among children, boys (11%) had a higher rate of being likely to have emotional or behavioural problems than girls (6%). After adjusting for age and gender, Māori adults were 1.1 times as likely to have mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms (than non-Māori adults) and Māori children were 1.5 times as likely to have emotional or behavioural problems (than how much cialis should i take non-Māori children). For both adults and children, those who were living in more socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods had higher rates of mental health-related issues. Risk of problematic substance use 32% of adults in New Zealand had a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use.

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Moderate or high risk of problematic substance use was higher among adults with mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms (38%) than the general adult population. Use of health services and other informal help for mental health and substance how much cialis should i take use In the year before being surveyed, 36% of adults had used some type of help (eg, health services, the internet, talking to family/whānau) for their mental health or substance use. The most commonly reported types of help used by adults were complementary and alternative therapies (21%), help from primary care or medication (14%), using the internet to find out about symptoms (12%), counsellors, psychologists and helplines (9%) and talking to family, whānau or friends (9%). 30% of all families had used help (including informal help) for their child’s emotions, behaviours, stress, mental health or substance use.

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The Mental Health Data Explorer presents survey results on How can i buy symbicort mental health status, risk of problematic substance use, loneliness, informal help-seeking and access to mental health and addictions services for both adults cialis best price and children. Results are available by gender, age group, ethnic group and neighbourhood deprivation. Use our Mental Health Data Explorer to see results from the mental health module of the 2016/17 New Zealand Health Survey or to download the published cialis best price data as a .csv file. The 2016/17 mental health module included three internationally used tools to assess mental health and substance use. These tools are.

ASSIST – The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) is a screening tool that cialis best price asks about the use of alcohol, tobacco, cannabinoids and other psychoactive substances. The screening test gives insight into problematic substance use including dependence and the risk of harm currently or in the future. PHQ-SADS – The Patient Health Questionnaire. Somatic, Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms (PHQ-SADS) screens for the presence cialis best price and severity of depression, anxiety, and somatic symptoms (such as pain and shortness of breath). SDQ – The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) examines emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity, peer problems and prosocial behaviours in children, and has been validated internationally to screen for mental health problems in children and adolescents.

Overview of key findings Mental health-related issues Among adults, 19% had mild or greater anxiety symptoms, 20% had mild or greater depression symptoms and 39% had mild or cialis best price greater somatic symptoms (such as pain and shortness of breath) in the four weeks before being surveyed. Women had higher rates of anxiety, depression and somatic symptoms than men. Among children, boys (11%) had a higher rate of being likely to have emotional or behavioural problems than girls (6%). After adjusting for age and gender, Māori adults were 1.1 cialis best price times as likely to have mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms (than non-Māori adults) and Māori children were 1.5 times as likely to have emotional or behavioural problems (than non-Māori children). For both adults and children, those who were living in more socioeconomically deprived neighbourhoods had higher rates of mental health-related issues.

Risk of problematic substance use 32% of adults in New Zealand had a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use. This was largely due to moderate or high risk of problematic tobacco use cialis best price (20%. Which includes ex-smokers) and moderate or high risk of problematic alcohol use (15%). The rate of men with a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use was higher (36%) than that cialis best price of women (27%). Adults living in the most deprived neighborhoods were 1.5 times as likely to have a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use than adults living in the least deprived neighborhoods, after adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity.

Moderate or high risk of problematic substance use was higher among adults with mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms (38%) than the general adult population. Use of health services and other informal help cialis best price for mental health and substance use In the year before being surveyed, 36% of adults had used some type of help (eg, health services, the internet, talking to family/whānau) for their mental health or substance use. The most commonly reported types of help used by adults were complementary and alternative therapies (21%), help from primary care or medication (14%), using the internet to find out about symptoms (12%), counsellors, psychologists and helplines (9%) and talking to family, whānau or friends (9%). 30% of all families had used help (including informal help) for their child’s emotions, behaviours, stress, mental health or substance use. Help was sought from a wide variety of sources including cialis best price using the internet to find out about symptoms (11%), primary care or medication (10%), complementary and alternative therapies (9%), teachers (9%), counsellors, psychologists and helplines (9%) and family, whānau or friends (8%).

Adults with mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms (53%) and adults with a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use (46%) were more likely to use help than the general adult population. Children who were likely to have emotional or behavioural problems (68%) were more likely to use help than the general cialis best price child population. Generally, women were more likely to report using help than men (41% vs 31%), however there was no significant difference in families using help for boys and girls. Pacific and Asian adults and children were less likely than non-Pacific and non-Asian adults and children to have used help. Māori children cialis best price and their families were more likely to have used help than non-Māori children and their families.

Among adults with mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms and adults with a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use, younger adults (aged 15–24 years) were more likely to use help than older adults (aged 75+ years). There was a trend across deprivation quintiles, with lower rates of using help in more deprived neighbourhoods for both adults with mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms and children who were likely to have emotional or behavioural problems (but not for adults with a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use). Unmet need for professional help for mental health and substance use About 1 in 20 adults and children reported an unmet need for professional cialis best price help for their emotions, stress, mental health or substance use in the year before being surveyed. Unmet need for professional help for mental health or substance use was higher for adults with mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms (10%) and adults with a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use (8%) than for the general adult population. Adults aged 75+ years were less likely to report an unmet need for professional help for mental health or substance use than younger adults (aged 15–24 years), both for adults with mild or greater anxiety, depression or somatic symptoms (1.8% and 17%, respectively) and for adults with a moderate or high risk of problematic substance use (0.6% and 15%, respectively)..

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AbstractBrazil is currently home to the http://www.mbstoday.org/mbs-grant-highlights-2/ largest Japanese population outside of Japan cheap discount cialis. In Brazil today, Japanese-Brazilians are considered to be successful members of Brazilian society. This was cheap discount cialis not always the case, however, and Japanese immigrants to Brazil endured much hardship to attain their current level of prestige.

This essay explores this community’s trajectory towards the formation of the Japanese-Brazilian identity and the issues of mental health that arise in this immigrant community. Through the analysis of Japanese-Brazilian novels, TV shows, film and public health studies, I seek to disentangle the themes of gender and modernisation, and how these themes concurrently grapple with Japanese-Brazilian mental health issues. These fictional narratives provide a lens into the experience of the Japanese-Brazilian community that is unavailable in traditional medical studies about their mental health.filmliterature and medicinemental health caregender studiesmedical humanitiesData availability statementData are available in a public, open access repository.Introduction and philosophical cheap discount cialis backgroundWork in the medical humanities has noted the importance of the ‘medical gaze’ and how it may ‘see’ the patient in ways which are specific, while possessing broad significance, in relation to developing medical knowledge.

To diagnosis. And to the social position of the medical profession.1 Some authors have emphasised that vision is a distinctive modality of perception which cheap discount cialis merits its own consideration, and which may have a particular role to play in medical education and understanding.2 3 The clothing we wear has a strong impact on how we are perceived. For example, commentary in this journal on the ‘white coat’ observes that while it may rob the medical doctor of individuality, it nonetheless grants an elevated status4.

In contrast, the patient hospital gown may rob patients of individuality in a way that stigmatises them,5 reducing their status in the ward, and ultimately dehumanises them, in conflict with the humanistic approaches seen as central to the best practice in the care of older patients, and particularly those living with dementia.6The broad context of our concern is the visibility of patients and their needs. We draw on observations made during an ethnographic study of the everyday care of people living with dementia within cheap discount cialis acute hospital wards, to consider how patients’ clothing may impact on the way they were perceived by themselves and by others. Hence, we draw on this ethnography to contribute to discussion of the ‘medical gaze’ in a specific and informative context.The acute setting illustrates a situation in which there are great many biomedical, technical, recording, and timetabled routine task-oriented demands, organised and delivered by different staff members, together with demands for care and attention to particular individuals and an awareness of their needs.

Within this ward setting, we focus on patients who are living with dementia, since this group may be particularly vulnerable to a dehumanising gaze.6 We frame our discussion within the broader context of the general philosophical question of how we acquire knowledge of different types, and the moral consequences of this, particularly knowledge through visual perception.Debates throughout the history of philosophy raise questions about the nature and sources of our knowledge. Contrasts are often drawn between more cheap discount cialis reliable or less reliable knowledge. And between knowledge that is more technical or ‘objective’, and knowledge that is more emotionally based or more ‘subjective’.

A frequent point of discussion is the reliability and characteristics of perception cheap discount cialis as a source of knowledge. This epistemological discussion is mostly focused on vision, indicating its particular importance as a mode of perception to humans.7Likewise, in ethics, there is discussion of the origin of our moral knowledge and the particular role of perception.8 There is frequent recognition that the observer has some significant role in acquiring moral knowledge. Attention to qualities of the moral observer is not in itself a denial of moral reality.

Indeed, it is the very cheap discount cialis essence of an ethical response to the world to recognise the deep reality of others as separate persons. The nature of ethical attention to the world and to those around us is debated and has been articulated in various ways. The quality of ethical attention may vary and achieving a high level of ethical attention may require certain conditions, certain virtues, and the time and mental space to attend to the situation and claims of the other.9Consideration has already been given to how different modes of attention to the world might be of relevance to the practice of medicine.

Work that examines different ways of processing information, and of interacting with and being in the world, can be found in Iain McGilchrist’s The Master and His Emissary,10 where he draws on neurological cheap discount cialis discoveries and applies his ideas to the development of human culture. McGilchrist has recently expanded on the relevance of understanding two different approaches to knowledge for the practice of medicine.11 He argues that task-oriented perception, and a wider, more emotionally attuned awareness of the environment are necessary partners, but may in some circumstances compete, with the competitive edge often being given to the narrower, task-based attention.There has been critique of McGilchrist’s arguments as well as much support. We find his work a useful framework for understanding important debates in the ethics of medicine and of nursing about relationships of staff to patients cheap discount cialis.

In particular, it helps to illuminate the consequences of patients’ dress and personal appearance for how they are seen and treated.Dementia and personal appearanceOur work focuses on patients living with dementia admitted to acute hospital wards. Here, they are a large group, present alongside older patients unaffected by dementia, as well as younger patients. This mixed population provides a useful setting to consider the cheap discount cialis impact of personal appearance on different patient groups.The role of appearance in the presentation of the self has been explored extensively by Tseëlon,12 13 drawing on Goffman’s work on stigma5 and the presentation of the self14 using interactionist approaches.

Drawing on the experiences on women in the UK, Tseëlon argues Goffman’s interactionist approach best supports how we understand the relationship appearance plays in self presentation, and its relationships with other signs and interactions surrounding it. Tseëlon suggests that understandings in this area, in the role appearance and clothing have in the presentation of the self, have been restricted by the perceived trivialities of the topic and limited to the field of fashion studies.15The personal appearance of older patients, and patients living with dementia in particular, has, more recently, been shown to be worthy of attention and of particular significance. Older people are often assumed to be left out of fashion, yet a concern with appearance remains.16 17 Lack of attention to clothing cheap discount cialis and to personal care may be one sign of the varied symptoms associated with cognitive impairment or dementia, and so conversely, attention to appearance is one way of combatting the stigma associated with dementia.

Families and carers may also feel the importance of personal appearance. The significant body of work by Twigg and Buse in this field in particular draws attention to the role clothing has on preserving cheap discount cialis the identity and dignity or people living with dementia, while also constraining and enabling elements of care within long-term community settings.16–19 Within this paper, we examine the ways in which these phenomena can be even more acutely felt within the impersonal setting of the acute hospital.Work has also shown how people living with dementia strongly retain a felt, bodily appreciation for the importance of personal appearance. The comfort and sensuous feel of familiar clothing may remain, even after cognitive capacities such as the ability to recognise oneself in a mirror, or verbal fluency, are lost.18 More strongly still, Kontos,20–22 drawing on the work of Merleau-Ponty and of Bourdieu, has convincingly argued that this attention to clothing and personal appearance is an important aspect of the maintenance of a bodily sense of self, which is also socially mediated, in part via such attention to appearance.

Our observations lend support to Kontos’ hypothesis.Much of this previous work has considered clothing in the everyday life of people living with dementia in the context of community or long-term residential care.18 Here, we look at the visual impact of clothing and appearance in the different setting of the hospital ward and consider the consequent implications for patient care. This setting enables us to consider how the short-term and unfamiliar environments of the acute ward, together with the contrast between personal and institutional attire, impact on the perception of the patient by self and by others.There is a body of literature that examines the work of restoring the appearance of residents within long-term community care settings, for instance Ward et al’s work that demonstrates the importance of hair and grooming as a key component of care.23 24 The work of Iltanen-Tähkävuori25 examines the usage of garments designed for long-term care settings, exploring the conflict between clothing used to prevent undressing or facilitate the delivery of care, and the distress such clothing can cause, being powerfully symbolic of cheap discount cialis lower social status and associated with reduced autonomy.26 27Within this literature, there has also been a significant focus on the role of clothing, appearance and the tasks of personal care surrounding it, on the older female body. A corpus of feminist literature has examined the ageing process and the use of clothing to conceal ageing, the presentation of a younger self, or a ‘certain’ age28 It argues that once the ability to conceal the ageing process through clothing and grooming has been lost, the aged person must instead conceal themselves, dressing to hide themselves and becoming invisible in the process.29 This paper will explore how institutional clothing within hospital wards affects both the male and female body, the presentation of the ageing body and its role in reinforcing the invisibility of older people, at a time when they are paradoxically most visible, unclothed and undressed, or wearing institutional clothing within the hospital ward.Institutional clothing is designed and used to fulfil a practical function.

Its use may therefore perhaps incline us towards a ‘task-based’ mode of attention, which as McGilchrist argues,10 while having a vital place in our understanding of the world, may on occasion interfere with the forms of attention that may be needed to deliver good person-oriented care responsive to individual needs.MethodsEthnography involves the in-depth study of people’s actions and accounts within their natural everyday setting, collecting relatively unstructured data from a range of sources.30 Importantly, it can take into account the perspectives of patients, carers and hospital staff.31 Our approach to ethnography is informed by the symbolic interactionist research tradition, which aims to provide an interpretive understanding of the social world, with an emphasis on interaction, focusing on understanding how action and meaning are constructed within a setting.32 The value of this approach is the depth of understanding and theory generation it can provide.33The goal of ethnography is to identify social processes within the data. There are multiple complex and nuanced interactions within these clinical settings that are capable cheap discount cialis of ‘communicating many messages at once, even of subverting on one level what it appears to be “saying” on another’.34 Thus, it is important to observe interaction and performance. How everyday care work is organised and delivered.

By obtaining observational data from within cheap discount cialis each institution on the everyday work of hospital wards, their family carers and the nursing and healthcare assistants (HCAs) who carry out this work, we can explore the ways in which hospital organisation, procedures and everyday care impact on care during a hospital admission. It remedies a common weakness in many qualitative studies, that what people say in interviews may differ from what they do or their private justifications to others.35Data collection (observations and interviews) and analysis were informed by the analytic tradition of grounded theory.36 There was no prior hypothesis testing and we used the constant comparative method and theoretical sampling whereby data collection (observation and interview data) and analysis are inter-related,36 37 and are carried out concurrently.38 39 The flexible nature of this approach is important, because it can allow us to increase the ‘analytic incisiveness’35 of the study. Preliminary analysis of data collected from individual sites informed the focus of later stages of sampling, data collection and analysis in other sites.Thus, sampling requires a flexible, pragmatic approach and purposive and maximum variation sampling (theoretical sampling) was used.

This included cheap discount cialis five hospitals selected to represent a range of hospitals types, geographies and socioeconomic catchments. Five hospitals were purposefully selected to represent a range of hospitals types. Two large university teaching hospitals, two medium-sized general hospitals and one smaller general hospital.

This included one urban, two inner city and two hospitals covering a mix of rural and suburban cheap discount cialis catchment areas, all situated within England and Wales.These sites represented a range of expertise and interventions in caring for people with dementia, from no formal expertise to the deployment of specialist dementia workers. Fractures, nutritional disorders, urinary tract and pneumonia40 41 are among the principal causes of admission to acute hospital settings among people with dementia. Thus, we focused observation cheap discount cialis within trauma and orthopaedic wards (80 days) and medical assessment units (MAU.

75 days).Across these sites, 155 days of observational fieldwork were carried out. At each of the five sites, a minimum of 30 days observation took place, split between the two ward types. Observations were carried out by two researchers, each cheap discount cialis working in clusters of 2–4 days over a 6-week period at each site.

A single day of observation could last a minimum of 2 hours and a maximum of 12 hours. A total of 684 hours of observation were conducted for this study. This produced cheap discount cialis approximately 600 000 words of observational fieldnotes that were transcribed, cleaned and anonymised (by KF and AN).

We also carried out ethnographic (during observation) interviews with trauma and orthopaedic ward (192 ethnographic interviews and 22 group interviews) and MAU (222 ethnographic interviews) staff (including nurses, HCAs, auxiliary and support staff and medical teams) as they cared for this patient group. This allowed us to question what they are doing and why, and what are the caring practices of ward staff when interacting with people living with dementia.Patients within these settings with a diagnosis of dementia were identified through ward nursing handover notes, cheap discount cialis patient records and board data with the assistance of ward staff. Following the provision of written and verbal information about the study, and the expression of willingness to take part, written consent was taken from patients, staff and visitors directly observed or spoken to as part of the study.To optimise the generalisability of our findings,42 our approach emphasises the importance of comparisons across sites,43 with theoretical saturation achieved following the search for negative cases, and on exploring a diverse and wide range of data.

When no additional empirical data were found, we concluded that the analytical categories were saturated.36 44Grounded theory and ethnography are complementary traditions, with grounded theory strengthening the ethnographic aims of achieving a theoretical interpretation of the data, while the ethnographic approach prevents a rigid application of grounded theory.35 Using an ethnographic approach can mean that everything within a setting is treated as data, which can lead to large volumes of unconnected data and a descriptive analysis.45 This approach provides a middle ground in which the ethnographer, often seen as a passive observer of the social world, uses grounded theory to provide a systematic approach to data collection and analysis that can be used to develop theory to address the interpretive realities of participants within this setting.35Patient and public involvementThe data presented in this paper are drawn from a wider ethnographic study supported by an advisory group of people living with dementia and their family carers. It was this advisory group that informed us of the need of a better understanding of the impacts of the everyday care received by cheap discount cialis people living with dementia in acute hospital settings. The authors met with this group on a regular basis throughout the study, and received guidance on both the design of the study and the format of written materials used to recruit participants to the study.

The external oversight group for this study included, and was chaired, by carers of people living with dementia. Once data analysis was complete, the advisory group commented on our initial findings and recommendations cheap discount cialis. During and on completion of the analysis, a series of public consultation events were held with people living with dementia and family carers to ensure their involvement in discussing, informing and refining our analysis.FindingsWithin this paper, we focus on exploring the medical gaze through the embedded institutional cultures of patient clothing, and the implications this have for patients living with dementia within acute hospital wards.

These findings emerged from our wider analysis of our ethnographic study examining ward cultures cheap discount cialis of care and the experiences of people living with dementia. Here, we examine the ways in which the cultures of clothing within wards impact on the visibility of patients within it, what clothing and identity mean within the ward and the ways in which clothing can be a source of distress. We will look at how personal grooming and appearance can affect status within the ward, and finally explore the removal of clothing, and the impacts of its absence.Ward clothing culturesAcross our sites, there was variation in the cultures of patient clothing and dress.

Within many wards, it was typical for all older patients to be dressed in hospital-issued institutional gowns and pyjamas (typically in pastel blue, pink, green or peach), paired with hospital supplied socks (usually bright red, although there was some small variation) with non-slip grip soles, while in other wards, it was standard cheap discount cialis practice for people to be supported to dress in their own clothes. Across all these wards, we observed that younger patients (middle aged/working age) were more likely to be able to wear their own clothes while admitted to a ward, than older patients and those with a dementia diagnosis.Among key signifiers of social status and individuality are the material things around the person, which in these hospital wards included the accoutrements around the bedside. Significantly, it was observed that people living with dementia were more likely to be wearing an institutional hospital gown or institutional pyjamas, and to have little to individuate the person at the bedside, on either their cabinet or the mobile tray table at their bedside.

The wearing of institutional clothing was typically connected to fewer personal items on display or within cheap discount cialis reach of the patient, with any items tidied away out of sight. In contrast, younger working age patients often had many personal belongings, cards, gadgets, books, media players, with young adults also often having a range of ‘get well soon’ gifts, balloons and so on from the hospital gift shop) on display. This both afforded some elements of familiarity, but also marked the person out as someone with individuality and a certain social standing and place.Visibility of patients on a wardThe significance of the obscurity or invisibility of the patient in artworks depicting doctors has been commented on.4 Likewise, we observed that some patients within these wards were cheap discount cialis much more ‘visible’ to staff than others.

It was often apparent how the wearing of personal clothing could make the patient and their needs more readily visible to others as a person. This may be especially so given the contrast in appearance clothing may produce in this particular setting. On occasion, this may be remarked on by staff, and the resulting attention received favourably by the patient.A member of the bay team returned to a patient and found her freshly dressed in a cheap discount cialis white tee shirt, navy slacks and black velvet slippers and exclaimed aloud and appreciatively, ‘Wow, look at you!.

€™ The patient looked pleased as she sat and combed her hair [site 3 day 1].Such a simple act of recognition as someone with a socially approved appearance takes on a special significance in the context of an acute hospital ward, and for patients living with dementia whose personhood may be overlooked in various ways.46This question of visibility of patients may also be particularly important when people living with dementia may be less able to make their needs and presence known. In this example, a whole bay of patients was seemingly ‘invisible’. Here, the ethnographer is observing a four-bed bay occupied by male patients living with dementia.The man in cheap discount cialis bed 17 is sitting in his bedside chair.

He is dressed in green hospital issue pyjamas and yellow grip socks. At 10 a.m., the physiotherapy team come and see cheap discount cialis him. The physiotherapist crouches down in front of him and asks him how he is.

He says he is unhappy, and the physiotherapist explains that she’ll be back later to see him again. The nurse checks on him, asks him if he wants a pillow, and puts it behind his head explaining to him, ‘You need to sit in the chair for a bit’ cheap discount cialis. She pulls his bedside trolley near to him.

With the help of a Healthcare Assistant they make the bed. The Healthcare Assistant chats to him, puts cake out for him, and puts a blanket over his legs cheap discount cialis. He is shaking slightly and I wonder if he is cold.The nurse explains to me, ‘The problem is this is a really unstimulating environment’, then says to the patient, ‘All done, let’s have a bit of a tidy up,’ before wheeling the equipment out.The neighbouring patient in bed 18, is now sitting in his bedside chair, wearing (his own) striped pyjamas.

His eyes cheap discount cialis are open, and he is looking around. After a while, he closes his eyes and dozes. The team chat to patient 19 behind the curtains.

He says he doesn’t want to sit, and they say that is fine unless the doctors cheap discount cialis tell them otherwise.The nurse puts music on an old radio with a CD player which is at the doorway near the ward entrance. It sounds like music from a musical and the ward it is quite noisy suddenly. She turns down the volume a bit, but it is very jaunty and upbeat.

The man in cheap discount cialis bed 19 quietly sings along to the songs. €˜I am going to see my baby when I go home on victory day…’At ten thirty, the nurse goes off on her break. The rest of the team are spread around the other bays cheap discount cialis and side rooms.

There are long distances between bays within this ward. After all the earlier activity it is now very calm and peaceful in the bay. Patient 20 is sitting in the chair tapping his feet cheap discount cialis to the music.

He has taken out a large hessian shopping bag out of his cabinet and is sorting through the contents. There is a lot of paperwork in it which he is reading through cheap discount cialis closely and sorting.Opposite, patient 17 looks very uncomfortable. He is sitting with two pillows behind his back but has slipped down the chair.

His head is in his hands and he suddenly looks in pain. He hasn’t touched his tea, and cheap discount cialis is talking to himself. The junior medic was aware that 17 was not comfortable, and it had looked like she was going to get some advice, but she hasn’t come back.

18 drinks his tea and looks at a wool twiddle mitt sleeve, puts it down, and dozes. 19 has finished all his coffee and manages to put the cup down on the trolley.Everyone is tapping their feet or wiggling their toes to the music, or singing quietly to it, when a student nurse, who is working at the computer station in the cheap discount cialis corridor outside the room, comes in. She has a strong purposeful stride and looks irritated as she switches the music off.

It feels like a jolt to the room cheap discount cialis. She turns and looks at me and says, ‘Sorry were you listening to it?. €™ I tell her that I think these gentlemen were listening to it.She suddenly looks very startled and surprised and looks at the men in the room for the first time.

They have cheap discount cialis all stopped tapping their toes and stopped singing along. She turns it back on but asks me if she can turn it down. She leaves and goes back to her paperwork outside.

Once it cheap discount cialis is turned back on everyone starts tapping their toes again. The music plays on. €˜There’ll be bluebirds over the white cliffs of Dover, just you wait and see…’[Site 3 day 3]The music was played by staff to help combat the drab and unstimulating environment of this hospital ward for the patients, the very people the ward cheap discount cialis is meant to serve.

Yet for this member of ward staff the music was perceived as a nuisance, the men for whom the music was playing seemingly did not register to her awareness. Only an individual of ‘higher’ status, the researcher, sitting at the end of this room was visible to her. This example illustrates the general question of the visibility or otherwise of cheap discount cialis patients.

Focusing on our immediate topic, there may be complex pathways through which clothing may impact on how patients living with dementia are perceived, and on their self-perception.Clothing and identityOn these wards, we also observed how important familiar aspects of appearance were to relatives. Family members may be distressed if they find the person they knew so well, looking markedly different. In the example cheap discount cialis below, a mother and two adult daughters visit the father of the family, who is not visible to them as the person they were so familiar with.

His is not wearing his glasses, which are missing, and his daughters find this very difficult. Even though he looks very different following his admission—he has lost a large amount of weight and has sunken cheekbones, and his skin has taken on a darker hue—it is his glasses which are cheap discount cialis a key concern for the family in their recognition of their father:As I enter the corridor to go back to the ward, I meet the wife and daughter of the patient in bed 2 in the hall and walk with them back to the ward. Their father looks very frail, his head is back, and his face is immobile, his eyes are closed, and his mouth is open.

His skin looks darker than before, and his cheekbones and eye sockets are extremely prominent from weight loss. €˜I am like a bird cheap discount cialis I want to fly away…’ plays softly in the radio in the bay. I sit with them for a bit and we chat—his wife holds his hand as we talk.

His wife has to take two busses to get to the hospital and we talk about the potential care home they expect her husband will be discharged to. They hope cheap discount cialis it will be close because she does not drive. He isn’t wearing his glasses and his daughter tells me that they can’t find them.

We look in the cheap discount cialis bedside cabinet. She has never seen her dad without his glasses. €˜He doesn’t look like my dad without his glasses’ [Site 2 day 15].It was often these small aspects of personal clothing and grooming that prompted powerful responses from visiting family members.

Missing glasses and missing teeth were notable in this regard (and with the follow-up visits from the relatives of discharged patients trying to retrieve these now lost objects) cheap discount cialis. The location of these possessions, which could have a medical purpose in the case of glasses, dental prosthetics, hearing aids or accessories which contained personal and important aspects of a patient’s identity, such as wallets or keys, and particularly, for female patients, handbags, could be a prominent source of distress for individuals. These accessories to personal clothing were notable on these wards by their everyday absence, hidden away in bedside cupboards or simply not brought in with the patient at admission, and by the frequency with which patients requested and called out for them or tried to look for them, often in repetitive cycles that indicated their underlying anxiety about these belongings, but which would become invisible to staff, becoming an everyday background intrusion to the work of the wards.When considering the visibility and recognition of individual persons, missing glasses, especially glasses for distance vision, have a particular significance, for without them, a person may be less able to recognise and interact visually with others.

Their presence facilitates the subject of the gaze, in gazing back, and hence helps to ground meaningful and reciprocal relationships of cheap discount cialis recognition. This may be one factor behind the distress of relatives in finding their loved ones’ glasses to be absent.Clothing as a source of distressAcross all sites, we observed patients living with dementia who exhibited obvious distress at aspects of their institutional apparel and at the absence of their own personal clothing. Some older patients were clearly able to verbalise their understandings of cheap discount cialis the impacts of wearing institutional clothing.

One patient remarked to a nurse of her hospital blue tracksuit. €˜I look like an Olympian or Wentworth prison in this outfit!. The latter I expect…’ The staff laughed as they walked her out of the bay (site 3 day 1).Institutional clothing may be a source of distress to patients, although they may be unable to cheap discount cialis express this verbally.

Kontos has shown how people living with dementia may retain an awareness at a bodily level of the demands of etiquette.20 Likewise, in our study, a man living with dementia, wearing a very large institutional pyjama top, which had no collar and a very low V neck, continually tried to pull it up to cover his chest. The neckline was particularly low, because the pyjamas were far too large for him. He continued to fiddle with his very low-necked top even when his lunch tray was cheap discount cialis placed in front of him.

He clearly felt very uncomfortable with such clothing. He continued using his hands to try to pull it up to cover his exposed chest, during and after the meal was finished (site 3 day 5).For some patients, the communication of this distress in relation to clothing may be liable to misinterpretation and may have further impacts on how they are viewed within the cheap discount cialis ward. Here, a patient living with dementia recently admitted to this ward became tearful and upset after having a shower.

She had no fresh clothes, and so the team had provided her with a pink hospital gown to wear.‘I want my trousers, where is my bra, I’ve got no bra on.’ It is clear she doesn’t feel right without her own clothes on. The one-to-one healthcare assistant assigned to this patient tells her, ‘Your bra is cheap discount cialis dirty, do you want to wear that?. €™ She replies, ‘No I want a clean one.

Where are my trousers?. I want them, I’ve lost them.’ The healthcare assistant repeats the explaination that her clothes are dirty, and cheap discount cialis asks her, ‘Do you want your dirty ones?. €™ She is very teary ‘No, I want my clean ones.’ The carer again explains that they are dirty.The cleaner who always works in the ward arrives to clean the floor and sweeps around the patient as she sits in her chair, and as he does this, he says ‘Hello’ to her.

She is very teary and explains cheap discount cialis that she has lost her clothes. The cleaner listens sympathetically as she continues ‘I am all confused. I have lost my clothes.

I am all cheap discount cialis confused. How am I going to go to the shops with no clothes on!. €™ (site 5 day 5).This person experienced significant distress because of her absent clothes, but this would often be simply attributed to confusion, seen as a feature of her dementia.

This then may solidify staff perceptions of her condition cheap discount cialis. However, we need to consider that rather than her condition (her diagnosis of dementia) causing distress about clothing, the direction of causation may be the reverse. The absence of her own familiar clothing contributes significantly to her distress and disorientation cheap discount cialis.

Others have argued that people with limited verbal capacity and limited cognitive comprehension will have a direct appreciation of the grounding familiarity of wearing their own clothes, which give a bodily felt notion of comfort and familiarity.18 47 Familiar clothing may then be an essential prop to anchor the wearer within a recognisable social and meaningful space. To simply see clothing from a task-oriented point of view, as fulfilling a simply mechanical function, and that all clothing, whether personal or institutional have the same value and role, might be to interpret the desire to wear familiar clothing as an ‘optional extra’. However, for those patients most at risk of cheap discount cialis disorientation and distress within an unfamiliar environment, it could be a valuable necessity.Personal grooming and social statusIncluding in our consideration of clothing, we observed other aspects of the role of personal grooming.

Personal grooming was notable by its absence beyond the necessary cleaning required for reasons of immediate hygiene and clinical need (such as the prevention of pressure ulcers). Older patients, and particular those living with dementia who were unable to carry out ‘self-care’ independently and were not able to request support with personal grooming, could, over their admission, become visibly unkempt and scruffy, hair could be left unwashed, uncombed and unstyled, while men could become hirsute through a lack of shaving. The simple act of a visitor dressing and grooming a patient as they prepared for discharge cheap discount cialis could transform their appearance and leave that patient looking more alert, appear to having increased capacity, than when sitting ungroomed in their bed or bedside chair.It is important to consider the impact of appearance and of personal care in the context of an acute ward.

Kontos’ work examining life in a care home, referred to earlier, noted that people living with dementia may be acutely aware of transgressions in grooming and appearance, and noted many acts of self-care with personal appearance, such as stopping to apply lipstick, and conformity with high standards of table manners. Clothing, etiquette and personal grooming are cheap discount cialis important indicators of social class and hence an aspect of belonging and identity, and of how an individual relates to a wider group. In Kontos’ findings, these rituals and standards of appearance were also observed in negative reactions, such as expressions of disgust, towards those residents who breached these standards.

Hence, even in cases where an individual may be assessed as having considerable cognitive impairment, the importance of personal appearance must not be overlooked.For some patients within these wards, routine practices of everyday care at the bedside can increase the potential to influence whether they feel and appear socially acceptable. The delivery of routine timetabled care at the bedside can impact on people’s appearance in ways that may mark them out as failing to achieve accepted cheap discount cialis standards of embodied personhood. The task-oriented timetabling of mealtimes may have significance.

It was a typical observed feature of this routine, when a mealtime has ended, that people living with dementia were left with visible signs and features of the mealtime through spillages on faces, clothes, bed sheets and bedsides, that leave them at risk of being assessed as less socially acceptable and marked as having reduced independence. For example, a volunteer attempts to ‘feed’ a person living with dementia, when she gives up and leave the bedside (this woman living with dementia has resisted her attempts and explicitly says ‘no’), remnants cheap discount cialis of the food is left spread around her mouth (site E). In a different ward, the mealtime has ended, yet a large white plastic bib to prevent food spillages remains attached around the neck of a person living with dementia who is unable to remove it (site X).Of note, an adult would not normally wear a white plastic bib at home or in a restaurant.

It signifies a task-based apparel that is demeaning to an individual’s cheap discount cialis social status. This example also contrasts poignantly with examples from Kontos’ work,20 such as that of a female who had little or no ability to verbalise, but who nonetheless would routinely take her pearl necklace out from under her bib at mealtimes, showing she retained an acute awareness of her own appearance and the ‘right’ way to display this symbol of individuality, femininity and status. Likewise, Kontos gives the example of a resident who at mealtimes ‘placed her hand on her chest, to prevent her blouse from touching the food as she leaned over her plate’.20Patients who are less robust, who have cognitive impairments, who may be liable to disorientation and whose agency and personhood are most vulnerable are thus those for whom appropriate and familiar clothing may be most advantageous.

However, we found the ‘Matthew effect’ to cheap discount cialis be frequently in operation. To those who have the least, even that which they have will be taken away.48 Although there may be institutional and organisational rationales for putting a plastic cover over a patient, leaving it on for an extended period following a meal may act as a marker of dehumanising loss of social status. By being able to maintain familiar clothing and adornment to visually display social standing and identity, a person living with dementia may maintain a continuity of selfhood.However, it is also possible that dressing and grooming an older person may itself be a task-oriented institutional activity in certain contexts, as discussed by Lee-Treweek49 in the context of a nursing home preparing residents for ‘lounge view’ where visitors would see them, using residents to ‘create a visual product for others’ sometimes to the detriment of residents’ needs.

Our observations regarding the importance of patient appearance must therefore be considered as part of the care of the whole person and cheap discount cialis a significant feature of the institutional culture.Patient status and appearanceWithin these wards, a new grouping of class could become imposed on patients. We understand class not simply as socioeconomic class but as an indicator of the strata of local social organisation to which an individual belongs. Those in cheap discount cialis the lowest classes may have limited opportunities to participate in society, and we observed the ways in which this applied to the people living with dementia within these acute wards.

The differential impact of clothing as signifiers of social status has also been observed in a comparison of the white coat and the patient gown.4 It has been argued that while these both may help to mask individuality, they have quite different effects on social status on a ward. One might say that the white coat increases visibility as a person of standing and the attribution of agency, the patient gown diminishes both of these. (Within these wards, although white coats were not to be found, the cheap discount cialis dress code of medical staff did make them stand out.

For male doctors, for example, the uniform rarely strayed beyond chinos paired with a blue oxford button down shirt, sleeves rolled up, while women wore a wider range of smart casual office wear.) Likewise, we observed that the same arrangement of attire could be attributed to entirely different meanings for older patients with or without dementia.Removal of clothes and exposureWithin these wards, we observed high levels of behaviour perceived by ward staff as people living with dementia displaying ‘resistance’ to care.50 This included ‘resistance’ towards institutional clothing. This could include pulling up or removing hospital gowns, removing institutional pyjama trousers or pulling up gowns, and standing with gowns untied and exposed at the back (although this last example is an unavoidable design feature of the clothing itself). Importantly, the removal of clothing cheap discount cialis was limited to institutional gowns and pyjamas and we did not see any patients removing their own clothing.

This also included the removal of institutional bedding, with instances of patients pulling or kicking sheets from their bed. These acts could and was often interpreted by cheap discount cialis ward staff as a patient’s ‘resistance’ to care. There was some variation in this interpretation.

However, when an individual patient response to their institutional clothing and bedding was repeated during a shift, it was more likely to be conceived by the ward team as a form of resistance to their care, and responded to by the replacement and reinforcement of the clothing and bedding to recover the person.The removal of gowns, pyjamas and bedsheets often resulted in a patient exposing their genitalia or continence products (continence pads could be visible as a large diaper or nappy or a pad visibly held in place by transparent net pants), and as such, was disruptive to the norms and highly visible to staff and other visitor to these wards. Notably, unlike other behaviours considered by staff to be disruptive or inappropriate within these wards cheap discount cialis such as shouting or crying out, the removal of bedsheets and the subsequent bodily exposure would always be immediately corrected, the sheet replaced and the patient covered by either the nurse or HCA. The act of removal was typically interpreted by ward staff as representing a feature of the person’s dementia and staff responses were framed as an issue of patient dignity, or the dignity and embarrassment of other patients and visitors to the ward.

However, such responses to removal could lead to further cycles of removal and replacement, leading to an escalation of distress in the person cheap discount cialis. This was important, because the recording of ‘refusal of care’, or presumed ‘confusion’ associated with this, could have significant impacts on the care and discharge pathways available and prescribed for the individual patient.Consider the case of a woman living with dementia who is 90 years old (patient 1), in the example below. Despite having no immediate medical needs, she has been admitted to the MAU from a care home (following her husband’s stroke, he could no longer care for her).

Across the previous evening cheap discount cialis and morning shift, she was shouting, refusing all food and care and has received assistance from the specialist dementia care worker. However, during this shift, she has become calmer following a visit from her husband earlier in the day, has since eaten and requested drinks. Her care home would not readmit her, which meant she was not able to be discharged from the unit (an overflow unit due to a high number of admissions to the emergency department during a patch of exceptionally hot weather) until alternative arrangements could be made by social services.During our observations, she remains calm for the first 2 hours.

When she does talk, she is cheap discount cialis very loud and high pitched, but this is normal for her and not a sign of distress. For staff working on this bay, their attention is elsewhere, because of the other six patients on the unit, one is ‘on suicide watch’ and another is ‘refusing their medication’ (but does not have a diagnosis of dementia). At 15:10 cheap discount cialis patient 1 begins to remove her sheets:15:10.

The unit seems chaotic today. Patient 1 has begun to loudly drum her fingers on the tray table. She still cheap discount cialis has not been brought more milk, which she requested from the HCA an hour earlier.

The bay that patient 1 is admitted to is a temporary overflow unit and as a result staff do not know where things are. 1 has moved her sheets off her legs, her bare knees peeking out over the top of piled sheets.15:15. The nurse in charge says, ‘Hello,’ when she walks cheap discount cialis past 1’s bed.

1 looks across and smiles back at her. The nurse in charge cheap discount cialis explains to her that she needs to shuffle up the bed. 1 asks the nurse about her husband.

The nurse reminds 1 that her husband was there this morning and that he is coming back tomorrow. 1 says cheap discount cialis that he hasn’t been and she does not believe the nurse.15:25. I overhear the nurse in charge question, under her breath to herself, ‘Why 1 has been left on the unit?.

€™ 1 has started asking for somebody to come and see her. The nurse in charge tells 1 that she needs to do some jobs first and then will come and talk cheap discount cialis to her.15:30. 1 has once again kicked her sheets off of her legs.

A social worker comes onto the cheap discount cialis unit. 1 shouts, ‘Excuse me’ to her. The social worker replies, ‘Sorry I’m not staff, I don’t work here’ and leaves the bay.15:40.

1 keeps kicking sheets off her cheap discount cialis bed, otherwise the unit is quiet. She now whimpers whenever anyone passes her bed, which is whenever anyone comes through the unit’s door. 1 is the only elderly patient on the unit.

Again, the nurse cheap discount cialis in charge is heard sympathizing that this is not the right place for her.16:30. A doctor approaches 1, tells her that she is on her list of people to say hello to, she is quite friendly. 1 tells her that she has been here for 3 days, (the rest is cheap discount cialis inaudible because of pitch).

The doctor tries to cover 1 up, raising her bed sheet back over the bed, but 1 loudly refuses this. The doctor responds by ending the interaction, ‘See you later’, and leaves the unit.16:40. 1 attempts to talk to the new nurse assigned to the unit cheap discount cialis.

She goes over to 1 and says, ‘What’s up my darling?. €™ It’s hard to follow 1 now as she sounds very upset. The RN’s first instinct, like with the doctor and cheap discount cialis the nurse in charge, is to cover up 1 s legs with her bed sheet.

When 1 reacts to this she talks to her and they agree to cover up her knees. 1 is talking about how her husband won’t come and cheap discount cialis visit her, and still sounds really upset about this. [Site 3, Day 13]Of note is that between days 6 and 15 at this site, observed over a particularly warm summer, this unit was uncomfortably hot and stuffy.

The need to be uncovered could be viewed as a reasonable response, and in fact was considered acceptable for patients without a classification of dementia, provided they were otherwise clothed, such as the hospital gown patient 1 was wearing. This is cheap discount cialis an example of an aspect of care where the choice and autonomy granted to patients assessed as having (or assumed to have) cognitive capacity is not available to people who are considered to have impaired cognitive capacity (a diagnosis of dementia) and carries the additional moral judgements of the appropriateness of behaviour and bodily exposure. In the example given above, the actions were linked to the patient’s resistance to their admission to the hospital, driven by her desire to return home and to be with her husband.

Throughout observations over this 10-day period, patients perceived by staff as rational agents were allowed to strip down their bedding for comfort, whereas patients living with dementia who responded in this way were often viewed by staff as ‘undressing’, which would be interpreted as a feature of their condition, to be challenged and corrected by staff.Note how the same visual data triggered opposing interpretations of personal autonomy. Just as in the example above cheap discount cialis where distress over loss of familiar clothing may be interpreted as an aspect of confusion, yet lead to, or exacerbate, distress and disorientation. So ‘deviant’ bedding may be interpreted, for some patients only, in ways that solidify notions of lack of agency and confusion, is another example of the Matthew effect48 at work through the organisational expectations of the clothed appearance of patients.Within wards, it is not unusual to see patients, especially those with a diagnosis of dementia or cognitive impairment, walking in the corridor inadvertently in some state of undress, typically exposed from behind by their hospital gowns.

This exposure in itself is of course, an intrinsic functional feature of cheap discount cialis the design of the flimsy back-opening institutional clothing the patient has been placed in. This task-based clothing does not even fulfil this basic function very adequately. However, this inadvertent exposure could often be interpreted as an overt act of resistance to the ward and towards staff, especially when it led to exposed genitalia or continence products (pads or nappies).We speculate that the interpretation of resistance may be triggered by the visual prompt of disarrayed clothing and the meanings assumed to follow, where lack of decorum in attire is interpreted as indicating more general behavioural incompetence, cognitive impairment and/or standing outside the social order.DiscussionPrevious studies examining the significance of the visual, particularly Twigg and Buse’s work16–19 exploring the materialities of appearance, emphasise its key role in self-presentation, visibility, dignity and autonomy for older people and especially those living with dementia in care home settings.

Similarly, care home studies have demonstrated that institutional clothing, designed to facilitate task-based care, can be potentially dehumanising or and distressing.25 26 Our findings resonate with this work, but find that for people living with dementia within a key site of care, the acute ward, cheap discount cialis the impact of institutional clothing on the individual patient living with dementia, is poorly recognised, but is significant for the quality and humanity of their care.Our ethnographic approach enabled the researchers to observe the organisation and delivery of task-oriented fast-paced nature of the work of the ward and bedside care. Nonetheless, it should also be emphasised the instances in which staff such as HCAs and specialist dementia staff within these wards took time to take note of personal appearance and physical caring for patients and how important this can be for overall well-being. None of our observations should be read as critical of any individual staff, but reflects longstanding institutional cultures.Our previous work has examined how readily a person living with dementia within a hospital wards is vulnerable to dehumanisation,51 and to their behaviour within these wards being interpreted as a feature of their condition, rather than a response to the ways in which timetabled care is delivered at their bedside.50 We have also examined the ways in which visual stimuli within these wards in the form of signs and symbols indicating a diagnosis of dementia may inadvertently focus attention away from the individual patient and may incline towards simplified and inaccurate categorisation of both needs and the diagnostic category of dementia.52Our work supports the analysis of the two forms of attention arising from McGilchrist’s work.10 The institutional culture of the wards produces an organisational task-based technical attention, which we found appeared to compete with and reduce the opportunity for ward staff to seek a finer emotional attunement to the person they are caring for and their needs.

Focus on efficiency, pace and record keeping that measures individual task completion within a timetable of care may worsen all these cheap discount cialis effects. Indeed, other work has shown that in some contexts, attention to visual appearance may itself be little more than a ‘task’ to achieve.49 McGilchrist makes clear, and we agree, that both forms of attention are vital, but more needs to be done to enable staff to find a balance.Previous work has shown how important appearance is to older people, and to people living with dementia in particular, both in terms of how they are perceived by others, but also how for this group, people living with dementia, clothing and personal grooming may act as a particularly important anchor into a familiar social world. These twin aspects of clothing and appearance—self-perception cheap discount cialis and perception by others—may be especially important in the fast-paced context of an acute ward environment, where patients living with dementia may be struggling with the impacts of an additional acute medical condition within in a highly timetabled and regimented and unfamiliar environment of the ward, and where staff perceptions of them may feed into clinical assessments of their condition and subsequent treatment and discharge pathways.

We have seen above, for instance, how behaviour in relation to appearance may be seen as ‘resisting care’ in one group of patients, but as the natural expression of personal preference in patients viewed as being without cognitive impairments. Likewise, personal grooming might impact favourably on a patient’s alertness, visibility and status within the ward.Prior work has demonstrated the importance of the medical gaze for the perceptions of the patient. Other work has also shown how older people, and in particular people living with cheap discount cialis dementia, may be thought to be beyond concern for appearance, yet this does not accurately reflect the importance of appearance we found for this patient group.

Indeed, we argue that our work, along with the work of others such as Kontos,20 21 shows that if anything, visual appearance is especially important for people living with dementia particularly within clinical settings. In considering the task of washing the patient, Pols53 considered ‘dignitas’ in terms of aesthetic values, in comparison to humanitas conceived as citizen values of equality between persons. Attention to dignitas in the form of appearance may be a way of facilitating the treatment by others of a person with humanitas, and helping to realise cheap discount cialis dignity of patients.Data availability statementNo data are available.

Data are unavailable to protect anonymity.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Ethics approvalEthics committee approval for the study was granted by the NHS Research Ethics Service (15/WA/0191).AcknowledgmentsThe authors acknowledge funding support from the NIHR.Notes1. Devan Stahl (2013) cheap discount cialis. €œLiving into the imagined body.

How the diagnostic image confronts the lived body.” Medical Humanities. Medhum-2012–010286.2. Joyce Zazulak et al.

(2017). "The art of medicine. Arts-based training in observation and mindfulness for fostering the empathic response in medical residents.” Medical Humanities.

Medhum-2016-011180.3. E Forde (2018). "Using photography to enhance GP trainees’ reflective practice and professional development." Medical Humanities.

Medhum-2017-011203.4. Caroline Wellbery and Melissa Chan (2014) “White coat, patient gown.” Medical Humanities. Medhum-2013–0 10 463.5.

E Goffman (1990a). Stigma. Notes on the management of spoiled identity, Penguin.6.

J Bridges and C Wilkinson (2011). €œAchieving dignity for older people with dementia in hospital.” Nursing Standard 5 (29).7. J Dancy (1985).

Contemporary Epistemology, John Wiley and Sons.8. D McNaughton (1988). Moral Vision.

Blackwell.9. S Weil (1953). Gravity and Grace.

U of Nebraska Press.10. I McGilchrist (2009). The Master and his Emissary.

The divided brain and the making of the western world. New Haven and London, Yale University Press.11. Iain McGilchrist (2011).

€œPaying attention to the bipartite brain.” The Lancet 377 (9771). 1068–1069.12. Efrat Tseëlon (1992).

€œSelf presentation through appearance. A manipulative vs a dramaturgical approach”. Symbolic Interaction, 15(4).

501–514.13. E Tseëlon (1995). The masque of femininity.

The presentation of woman in everyday life. London. Sage.14.

E Goffman (1990b). The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life Penguin15. Efrat Tseëlon (2001).

€œFashion research and its discontents”. Fashion Theory, 5 (4). 435–451.16.

Julia Twigg (2010a). €œClothing and dementia. A neglected dimension?.

€ Journal of Ageing Studies 24(4). 223–230.17. Julia Twigg and Christina E Buse (2013).

€œDress, dementia and the embodiment of identity.” Dementia 12(3). 326–336.18. C.

E Buse and J. Twigg (2015). €œClothing, embodied identity and dementia.

Maintaining the self through dress.” Age, Culture, Humanities (2).19. Christina Buse and Julia Twigg (2018). €œDressing disrupted.

Negotiating care through the materiality of dress in the context of dementia.” Sociology of Health &. Illness, 40(2). 340-352.20.

PIA C Kontos (2004). Ethnographic reflections on selfhood, embodiment and Alzheimer's disease. Ageing &.

C Kontos (2005). €œEmbodied selfhood in Alzheimer's disease. Rethinking person-centred care.” Dementia 4 (4).

Naglie (2007). €œBridging theory and practice. Imagination, the body, and person-centred dementia care.” Dementia 6 (4).

549–569.23. Richard Ward et al. (2016a).

€œâ€˜Gonna make yer gorgeous’. Everyday transformation, resistance and belonging in the care-based hair salon.” Dementia, 15(3). 395–413.24.

Richard Ward, Sarah Campbell, and John Keady (2016b). €œAssembling the salon. Learning from alternative forms of body work in dementia care.” Sociology of Health &.

Illness, 38(8). 1287–1302.25. Sonja Iltanen-Tähkävuori, Minttu Wikberg, and Päivi Topo (2012).

Design and dementia. A case of garments designed to prevent undressing. Dementia, 11(1).

49–59.26. Päivi Topo and Sonja Iltanen-Tähkävuori (2010). €œScripting patienthood with patient clothing.” Social Science &.

Medicine, 70(11). 1682–1689.27. Julia Twigg (2010b).

€œWelfare embodied. The materiality of hospital dress. A commentary on Topo and Iltanen-Tähkävuori”.

Social Science and Medicine, 70(11), 1690–1692.28. Kathleen Woodward (2006). €œPerforming age, performing gender” National Women’s Studies Association (NWSA) Journal 18(1).

162–89.29. K.M Woodward (1999). Introduction.

In K.M. Woodward (ed.), Figuring Age. Women, Bodies and Generations (pp.

Ix-xxix). Bloomington. Indiana University Press.30.

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Research in the Schools, 13(1). 84–92.32. W Housley and P Atkinson (2003).

Interactionism, Sage33. M Hammersley (1987) What's Wrong with Ethnography?. Methodological Explorations.

London. Routledge34. V Turner and E Bruner (1986).

The Anthropology of Experience New York. PAJ Publications. 2435.

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Corbin and Anselm Strauss (1990). Grounded theoryrResearch. Procedures, canons, and evaluative criteria.

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Prospective cohort study of prevalence and mortality”. British Journal of Psychiatry,195(1). 61–66.

Doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.05533541. C Pinkert and B Holle (2012). €œPeople with dementia in acute hospitals.

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The methodological significance of comparison in ethnographic research” Studies in Education Ethnography 6:23–4244. Benjamin Saunders et al. (2018).

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Sage Publications, Inc.46. Paula Boddington and Katie Featherstone (2018). €œThe canary in the coal mine.

Continence care for people with dementia in acute hospital wards as a crisis of dehumanisation”. Bioethics, 32(4). 251–260.47.

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Analysing the spatial and symbolic meanings of dementia care settings through dress.” International Journal of Ageing and Later Life 9 (1). 69–95.48. R.

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The reward and communication systems of science are considered.” Science 159 (3810). 56–63.49. Geraldine Lee-Treweek (1997) “Women, resistance and care.

An ethnographic study of nursing auxiliary work” Work, Employment and Society, 11(1). 47–6350. Katie Featherstone et al.

(2019b). €œRefusal and resistance to care by people living with dementia being cared for within acute hospital wards. An ethnographic study” Health Service and Delivery Research51.

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Dignity and aesthetic values in nursing care” Nursing Philosophy, 14(3). 186–200.

AbstractBrazil is currently home to the largest Japanese cialis best price population outside of Japan. In Brazil today, Japanese-Brazilians are considered to be successful members of Brazilian society. This was not always the case, however, and Japanese immigrants to Brazil endured much hardship to cialis best price attain their current level of prestige. This essay explores this community’s trajectory towards the formation of the Japanese-Brazilian identity and the issues of mental health that arise in this immigrant community. Through the analysis of Japanese-Brazilian novels, TV shows, film and public health studies, I seek to disentangle the themes of gender and modernisation, and how these themes concurrently grapple with Japanese-Brazilian mental health issues.

These fictional narratives provide a lens into the experience of the Japanese-Brazilian community that is unavailable in traditional medical studies about their cialis best price mental health.filmliterature and medicinemental health caregender studiesmedical humanitiesData availability statementData are available in a public, open access repository.Introduction and philosophical backgroundWork in the medical humanities has noted the importance of the ‘medical gaze’ and how it may ‘see’ the patient in ways which are specific, while possessing broad significance, in relation to developing medical knowledge. To diagnosis. And to the social position cialis best price of the medical profession.1 Some authors have emphasised that vision is a distinctive modality of perception which merits its own consideration, and which may have a particular role to play in medical education and understanding.2 3 The clothing we wear has a strong impact on how we are perceived. For example, commentary in this journal on the ‘white coat’ observes that while it may rob the medical doctor of individuality, it nonetheless grants an elevated status4. In contrast, the patient hospital gown may rob patients of individuality in a way that stigmatises them,5 reducing their status in the ward, and ultimately dehumanises them, in conflict with the humanistic approaches seen as central to the best practice in the care of older patients, and particularly those living with dementia.6The broad context of our concern is the visibility of patients and their needs.

We draw on observations made during an ethnographic study of the everyday care of people living with dementia within acute hospital wards, to consider how patients’ clothing may impact on the cialis best price way they were perceived by themselves and by others. Hence, we draw on this ethnography to contribute to discussion of the ‘medical gaze’ in a specific and informative context.The acute setting illustrates a situation in which there are great many biomedical, technical, recording, and timetabled routine task-oriented demands, organised and delivered by different staff members, together with demands for care and attention to particular individuals and an awareness of their needs. Within this ward setting, we focus on patients who are living with dementia, since this group may be particularly vulnerable to a dehumanising gaze.6 We frame our discussion within the broader context of the general philosophical question of how we acquire knowledge of different types, and the moral consequences of this, particularly knowledge through visual perception.Debates throughout the history of philosophy raise questions about the nature and sources of our knowledge. Contrasts are cialis best price often drawn between more reliable or less reliable knowledge. And between knowledge that is more technical or ‘objective’, and knowledge that is more emotionally based or more ‘subjective’.

A frequent point of discussion is the reliability and cialis best price characteristics of perception as a source of knowledge. This epistemological discussion is mostly focused on vision, indicating its particular importance as a mode of perception to humans.7Likewise, in ethics, there is discussion of the origin of our moral knowledge and the particular role of perception.8 There is frequent recognition that the observer has some significant role in acquiring moral knowledge. Attention to qualities of the moral observer is not in itself a denial of moral reality. Indeed, it is the very essence of an ethical response to cialis best price the world to recognise the deep reality of others as separate persons. The nature of ethical attention to the world and to those around us is debated and has been articulated in various ways.

The quality of ethical attention may vary and achieving a high level of ethical attention may require certain conditions, certain virtues, and the time and mental space to attend to the situation and claims of the other.9Consideration has already been given to how different modes of attention to the world might be of relevance to the practice of medicine. Work that examines different ways of processing information, and of interacting with and being in the world, can be found in cialis best price Iain McGilchrist’s The Master and His Emissary,10 where he draws on neurological discoveries and applies his ideas to the development of human culture. McGilchrist has recently expanded on the relevance of understanding two different approaches to knowledge for the practice of medicine.11 He argues that task-oriented perception, and a wider, more emotionally attuned awareness of the environment are necessary partners, but may in some circumstances compete, with the competitive edge often being given to the narrower, task-based attention.There has been critique of McGilchrist’s arguments as well as much support. We find his work a cialis best price useful framework for understanding important debates in the ethics of medicine and of nursing about relationships of staff to patients. In particular, it helps to illuminate the consequences of patients’ dress and personal appearance for how they are seen and treated.Dementia and personal appearanceOur work focuses on patients living with dementia admitted to acute hospital wards.

Here, they are a large group, present alongside older patients unaffected by dementia, as well as younger patients. This mixed population provides a useful setting to consider the impact of personal appearance on different patient groups.The role of appearance in the presentation of the self has been explored extensively by Tseëlon,12 13 drawing cialis best price on Goffman’s work on stigma5 and the presentation of the self14 using interactionist approaches. Drawing on the experiences on women in the UK, Tseëlon argues Goffman’s interactionist approach best supports how we understand the relationship appearance plays in self presentation, and its relationships with other signs and interactions surrounding it. Tseëlon suggests that understandings in this area, in the role appearance and clothing have in the presentation of the self, have been restricted by the perceived trivialities of the topic and limited to the field of fashion studies.15The personal appearance of older patients, and patients living with dementia in particular, has, more recently, been shown to be worthy of attention and of particular significance. Older people are often assumed to cialis best price be left out of fashion, yet a concern with appearance remains.16 17 Lack of attention to clothing and to personal care may be one sign of the varied symptoms associated with cognitive impairment or dementia, and so conversely, attention to appearance is one way of combatting the stigma associated with dementia.

Families and carers may also feel the importance of personal appearance. The significant body of work by Twigg and Buse in this field in particular draws attention to the role clothing has on preserving the identity and dignity or people living with dementia, while also constraining and enabling elements of care within long-term community settings.16–19 Within this paper, we examine the ways in which these phenomena can be even more acutely felt within the impersonal setting of the acute hospital.Work has also cialis best price shown how people living with dementia strongly retain a felt, bodily appreciation for the importance of personal appearance. The comfort and sensuous feel of familiar clothing may remain, even after cognitive capacities such as the ability to recognise oneself in a mirror, or verbal fluency, are lost.18 More strongly still, Kontos,20–22 drawing on the work of Merleau-Ponty and of Bourdieu, has convincingly argued that this attention to clothing and personal appearance is an important aspect of the maintenance of a bodily sense of self, which is also socially mediated, in part via such attention to appearance. Our observations lend support to Kontos’ hypothesis.Much of this previous work has considered clothing in the everyday life of people living with dementia in the context of community or long-term residential care.18 Here, we look at the visual impact of clothing and appearance in the different setting of the hospital ward and consider the consequent implications for patient care. This setting enables us to consider how the short-term and unfamiliar environments of the acute ward, together with the contrast between personal and institutional attire, impact on the perception of the patient by self and by others.There is a body of literature that examines the work of restoring the cialis best price appearance of residents within long-term community care settings, for instance Ward et al’s work that demonstrates the importance of hair and grooming as a key component of care.23 24 The work of Iltanen-Tähkävuori25 examines the usage of garments designed for long-term care settings, exploring the conflict between clothing used to prevent undressing or facilitate the delivery of care, and the distress such clothing can cause, being powerfully symbolic of lower social status and associated with reduced autonomy.26 27Within this literature, there has also been a significant focus on the role of clothing, appearance and the tasks of personal care surrounding it, on the older female body.

A corpus of feminist literature has examined the ageing process and the use of clothing to conceal ageing, the presentation of a younger self, or a ‘certain’ age28 It argues that once the ability to conceal the ageing process through clothing and grooming has been lost, the aged person must instead conceal themselves, dressing to hide themselves and becoming invisible in the process.29 This paper will explore how institutional clothing within hospital wards affects both the male and female body, the presentation of the ageing body and its role in reinforcing the invisibility of older people, at a time when they are paradoxically most visible, unclothed and undressed, or wearing institutional clothing within the hospital ward.Institutional clothing is designed and used to fulfil a practical function. Its use may therefore perhaps incline us towards a ‘task-based’ mode of attention, which as McGilchrist argues,10 while having a vital place in our understanding of the world, may on occasion interfere with the forms of attention that may be needed to deliver good person-oriented care responsive to individual needs.MethodsEthnography involves the in-depth study of people’s actions and accounts within their natural everyday setting, collecting relatively unstructured data from a range of sources.30 Importantly, it can take into account the perspectives of patients, carers and hospital staff.31 Our approach to ethnography is informed by the symbolic interactionist research tradition, which aims to provide an interpretive understanding of the social world, with an emphasis on interaction, focusing on understanding how action and meaning are constructed within a setting.32 The value of this approach is the depth of understanding and theory generation it can provide.33The goal of ethnography is to identify social processes within the data. There are multiple cialis best price complex and nuanced interactions within these clinical settings that are capable of ‘communicating many messages at once, even of subverting on one level what it appears to be “saying” on another’.34 Thus, it is important to observe interaction and performance. How everyday care work is organised and delivered. By obtaining observational data from within each institution on the everyday work of hospital wards, their family carers and the nursing and healthcare assistants (HCAs) who carry out this work, we can cialis best price explore the ways in which hospital organisation, procedures and everyday care impact on care during a hospital admission.

It remedies a common weakness in many qualitative studies, that what people say in interviews may differ from what they do or their private justifications to others.35Data collection (observations and interviews) and analysis were informed by the analytic tradition of grounded theory.36 There was no prior hypothesis testing and we used the constant comparative method and theoretical sampling whereby data collection (observation and interview data) and analysis are inter-related,36 37 and are carried out concurrently.38 39 The flexible nature of this approach is important, because it can allow us to increase the ‘analytic incisiveness’35 of the study. Preliminary analysis of data collected from individual sites informed the focus of later stages of sampling, data collection and analysis in other sites.Thus, sampling requires a flexible, pragmatic approach and purposive and maximum variation sampling (theoretical sampling) was used. This included five hospitals selected to represent a range of hospitals types, geographies and cialis best price socioeconomic catchments. Five hospitals were purposefully selected to represent a range of hospitals types. Two large university teaching hospitals, two medium-sized general hospitals and one smaller general hospital.

This included one urban, two inner city and two hospitals covering a mix of rural and suburban catchment areas, all situated within England and Wales.These sites represented a range of expertise and interventions in caring for people with dementia, from no formal expertise to the deployment cialis best price of specialist dementia workers. Fractures, nutritional disorders, urinary tract and pneumonia40 41 are among the principal causes of admission to acute hospital settings among people with dementia. Thus, we cialis best price focused observation within trauma and orthopaedic wards (80 days) and medical assessment units (MAU. 75 days).Across these sites, 155 days of observational fieldwork were carried out. At each of the five sites, a minimum of 30 days observation took place, split between the two ward types.

Observations were carried out by two researchers, each working in clusters of cialis best price 2–4 days over a 6-week period at each site. A single day of observation could last a minimum of 2 hours and a maximum of 12 hours. A total of 684 hours of observation were conducted for this study. This produced approximately 600 000 words of observational fieldnotes that were transcribed, cialis best price cleaned and anonymised (by KF and AN). We also carried out ethnographic (during observation) interviews with trauma and orthopaedic ward (192 ethnographic interviews and 22 group interviews) and MAU (222 ethnographic interviews) staff (including nurses, HCAs, auxiliary and support staff and medical teams) as they cared for this patient group.

This allowed us to question what they are doing and why, and what are the caring practices of ward staff when interacting with people living with dementia.Patients within these settings with a cialis best price diagnosis of dementia were identified through ward nursing handover notes, patient records and board data with the assistance of ward staff. Following the provision of written and verbal information about the study, and the expression of willingness to take part, written consent was taken from patients, staff and visitors directly observed or spoken to as part of the study.To optimise the generalisability of our findings,42 our approach emphasises the importance of comparisons across sites,43 with theoretical saturation achieved following the search for negative cases, and on exploring a diverse and wide range of data. When no additional empirical data were found, we concluded that the analytical categories were saturated.36 44Grounded theory and ethnography are complementary traditions, with grounded theory strengthening the ethnographic aims of achieving a theoretical interpretation of the data, while the ethnographic approach prevents a rigid application of grounded theory.35 Using an ethnographic approach can mean that everything within a setting is treated as data, which can lead to large volumes of unconnected data and a descriptive analysis.45 This approach provides a middle ground in which the ethnographer, often seen as a passive observer of the social world, uses grounded theory to provide a systematic approach to data collection and analysis that can be used to develop theory to address the interpretive realities of participants within this setting.35Patient and public involvementThe data presented in this paper are drawn from a wider ethnographic study supported by an advisory group of people living with dementia and their family carers. It was this advisory group that informed us of the need of a better understanding of the impacts of the everyday care received by people cialis best price living with dementia in acute hospital settings. The authors met with this group on a regular basis throughout the study, and received guidance on both the design of the study and the format of written materials used to recruit participants to the study.

The external oversight group for this study included, and was chaired, by carers of people living with dementia. Once data analysis was complete, the advisory group commented on cialis best price our initial findings and recommendations. During and on completion of the analysis, a series of public consultation events were held with people living with dementia and family carers to ensure their involvement in discussing, informing and refining our analysis.FindingsWithin this paper, we focus on exploring the medical gaze through the embedded institutional cultures of patient clothing, and the implications this have for patients living with dementia within acute hospital wards. These findings emerged from our wider analysis of our ethnographic study cialis best price examining ward cultures of care and the experiences of people living with dementia. Here, we examine the ways in which the cultures of clothing within wards impact on the visibility of patients within it, what clothing and identity mean within the ward and the ways in which clothing can be a source of distress.

We will look at how personal grooming and appearance can affect status within the ward, and finally explore the removal of clothing, and the impacts of its absence.Ward clothing culturesAcross our sites, there was variation in the cultures of patient clothing and dress. Within many wards, it was typical for all older patients to be dressed in hospital-issued institutional gowns and pyjamas (typically in pastel blue, pink, green or peach), paired with hospital supplied socks (usually bright red, although there was some small variation) with non-slip grip soles, while in other wards, it was standard practice for people cialis best price to be supported to dress in their own clothes. Across all these wards, we observed that younger patients (middle aged/working age) were more likely to be able to wear their own clothes while admitted to a ward, than older patients and those with a dementia diagnosis.Among key signifiers of social status and individuality are the material things around the person, which in these hospital wards included the accoutrements around the bedside. Significantly, it was observed that people living with dementia were more likely to be wearing an institutional hospital gown or institutional pyjamas, and to have little to individuate the person at the bedside, on either their cabinet or the mobile tray table at their bedside. The wearing of institutional clothing cialis best price was typically connected to fewer personal items on display or within reach of the patient, with any items tidied away out of sight.

In contrast, younger working age patients often had many personal belongings, cards, gadgets, books, media players, with young adults also often having a range of ‘get well soon’ gifts, balloons and so on from the hospital gift shop) on display. This both afforded some elements of familiarity, but also marked the person out as someone with individuality and a certain social standing and place.Visibility cialis best price of patients on a wardThe significance of the obscurity or invisibility of the patient in artworks depicting doctors has been commented on.4 Likewise, we observed that some patients within these wards were much more ‘visible’ to staff than others. It was often apparent how the wearing of personal clothing could make the patient and their needs more readily visible to others as a person. This may be especially so given the contrast in appearance clothing may produce in this particular setting. On occasion, this may be remarked on by staff, cialis best price and the resulting attention received favourably by the patient.A member of the bay team returned to a patient and found her freshly dressed in a white tee shirt, navy slacks and black velvet slippers and exclaimed aloud and appreciatively, ‘Wow, look at you!.

€™ The patient looked pleased as she sat and combed her hair [site 3 day 1].Such a simple act of recognition as someone with a socially approved appearance takes on a special significance in the context of an acute hospital ward, and for patients living with dementia whose personhood may be overlooked in various ways.46This question of visibility of patients may also be particularly important when people living with dementia may be less able to make their needs and presence known. In this example, a whole bay of patients was seemingly ‘invisible’. Here, the ethnographer is observing a cialis best price four-bed bay occupied by male patients living with dementia.The man in bed 17 is sitting in his bedside chair. He is dressed in green hospital issue pyjamas and yellow grip socks. At 10 a.m., the physiotherapy cialis best price team come and see him.

The physiotherapist crouches down in front of him and asks him how he is. He says he is unhappy, and the physiotherapist explains that she’ll be back later to see him again. The nurse checks on him, asks him cialis best price if he wants a pillow, and puts it behind his head explaining to him, ‘You need to sit in the chair for a bit’. She pulls his bedside trolley near to him. With the help of a Healthcare Assistant they make the bed.

The Healthcare Assistant chats to him, puts cake out for him, and puts a blanket cialis best price over his legs. He is shaking slightly and I wonder if he is cold.The nurse explains to me, ‘The problem is this is a really unstimulating environment’, then says to the patient, ‘All done, let’s have a bit of a tidy up,’ before wheeling the equipment out.The neighbouring patient in bed 18, is now sitting in his bedside chair, wearing (his own) striped pyjamas. His eyes are open, and he cialis best price is looking around. After a while, he closes his eyes and dozes. The team chat to patient 19 behind the curtains.

He says he doesn’t cialis best price want to sit, and they say that is fine unless the doctors tell them otherwise.The nurse puts music on an old radio with a CD player which is at the doorway near the ward entrance. It sounds like music from a musical and the ward it is quite noisy suddenly. She turns down the volume a bit, but it is very jaunty and upbeat. The man in bed 19 quietly sings along cialis best price to the songs. €˜I am going to see my baby when I go home on victory day…’At ten thirty, the nurse goes off on her break.

The rest of the team are spread around cialis best price the other bays and side rooms. There are long distances between bays within this ward. After all the earlier activity it is now very calm and peaceful in the bay. Patient 20 is sitting in the chair tapping his cialis best price feet to the music. He has taken out a large hessian shopping bag out of his cabinet and is sorting through the contents.

There is a lot of paperwork in it which he is reading through closely and sorting.Opposite, patient 17 cialis best price looks very uncomfortable. He is sitting with two pillows behind his back but has slipped down the chair. His head is in his hands and he suddenly looks in pain. He hasn’t touched his tea, and cialis best price is talking to himself. The junior medic was aware that 17 was not comfortable, and it had looked like she was going to get some advice, but she hasn’t come back.

18 drinks his tea and looks at a wool twiddle mitt sleeve, puts it down, and dozes. 19 has finished all his coffee and manages to put the cup down on the trolley.Everyone is tapping their cialis best price feet or wiggling their toes to the music, or singing quietly to it, when a student nurse, who is working at the computer station in the corridor outside the room, comes in. She has a strong purposeful stride and looks irritated as she switches the music off. It feels like a jolt to the cialis best price room. She turns and looks at me and says, ‘Sorry were you listening to it?.

€™ I tell her that I think these gentlemen were listening to it.She suddenly looks very startled and surprised and looks at the men in the room for the first time. They have cialis best price all stopped tapping their toes and stopped singing along. She turns it back on but asks me if she can turn it down. She leaves and goes back to her paperwork outside. Once it is turned back on cialis best price everyone starts tapping their toes again.

The music plays on. €˜There’ll be bluebirds over the white cliffs of Dover, just you wait and see…’[Site 3 day 3]The music cialis best price was played by staff to help combat the drab and unstimulating environment of this hospital ward for the patients, the very people the ward is meant to serve. Yet for this member of ward staff the music was perceived as a nuisance, the men for whom the music was playing seemingly did not register to her awareness. Only an individual of ‘higher’ status, the researcher, sitting at the end of this room was visible to her. This example illustrates the general question of the visibility cialis best price or otherwise of patients.

Focusing on our immediate topic, there may be complex pathways through which clothing may impact on how patients living with dementia are perceived, and on their self-perception.Clothing and identityOn these wards, we also observed how important familiar aspects of appearance were to relatives. Family members may be distressed if they find the person they knew so well, looking markedly different. In the cialis best price example below, a mother and two adult daughters visit the father of the family, who is not visible to them as the person they were so familiar with. His is not wearing his glasses, which are missing, and his daughters find this very difficult. Even though he looks very different following his admission—he has lost a large amount of weight and has sunken cheekbones, and his skin has taken on a darker hue—it is his glasses which are a key concern cialis best price for the family in their recognition of their father:As I enter the corridor to go back to the ward, I meet the wife and daughter of the patient in bed 2 in the hall and walk with them back to the ward.

Their father looks very frail, his head is back, and his face is immobile, his eyes are closed, and his mouth is open. His skin looks darker than before, and his cheekbones and eye sockets are extremely prominent from weight loss. €˜I am like a bird I want to fly cialis best price away…’ plays softly in the radio in the bay. I sit with them for a bit and we chat—his wife holds his hand as we talk. His wife has to take two busses to get to the hospital and we talk about the potential care home they expect her husband will be discharged to.

They hope it will be close because she does not cialis best price drive. He isn’t wearing his glasses and his daughter tells me that they can’t find them. We look cialis best price in the bedside cabinet. She has never seen her dad without his glasses. €˜He doesn’t look like my dad without his glasses’ [Site 2 day 15].It was often these small aspects of personal clothing and grooming that prompted powerful responses from visiting family members.

Missing glasses and missing teeth cialis best price were notable in this regard (and with the follow-up visits from the relatives of discharged patients trying to retrieve these now lost objects). The location of these possessions, which could have a medical purpose in the case of glasses, dental prosthetics, hearing aids or accessories which contained personal and important aspects of a patient’s identity, such as wallets or keys, and particularly, for female patients, handbags, could be a prominent source of distress for individuals. These accessories to personal clothing were notable on these wards by their everyday absence, hidden away in bedside cupboards or simply not brought in with the patient at admission, and by the frequency with which patients requested and called out for them or tried to look for them, often in repetitive cycles that indicated their underlying anxiety about these belongings, but which would become invisible to staff, becoming an everyday background intrusion to the work of the wards.When considering the visibility and recognition of individual persons, missing glasses, especially glasses for distance vision, have a particular significance, for without them, a person may be less able to recognise and interact visually with others. Their presence facilitates the subject of the cialis best price gaze, in gazing back, and hence helps to ground meaningful and reciprocal relationships of recognition. This may be one factor behind the distress of relatives in finding their loved ones’ glasses to be absent.Clothing as a source of distressAcross all sites, we observed patients living with dementia who exhibited obvious distress at aspects of their institutional apparel and at the absence of their own personal clothing.

Some older patients were clearly able to verbalise their understandings cialis best price of the impacts of wearing institutional clothing. One patient remarked to a nurse of her hospital blue tracksuit. €˜I look like an Olympian or Wentworth prison in this outfit!. The latter I expect…’ The staff laughed as they cialis best price walked her out of the bay (site 3 day 1).Institutional clothing may be a source of distress to patients, although they may be unable to express this verbally. Kontos has shown how people living with dementia may retain an awareness at a bodily level of the demands of etiquette.20 Likewise, in our study, a man living with dementia, wearing a very large institutional pyjama top, which had no collar and a very low V neck, continually tried to pull it up to cover his chest.

The neckline was particularly low, because the pyjamas were far too large for him. He continued to fiddle with his very low-necked top even when his lunch tray was placed in front of cialis best price him. He clearly felt very uncomfortable with such clothing. He continued using his hands to try to pull it up to cover his exposed chest, during and after the meal was finished cialis best price (site 3 day 5).For some patients, the communication of this distress in relation to clothing may be liable to misinterpretation and may have further impacts on how they are viewed within the ward. Here, a patient living with dementia recently admitted to this ward became tearful and upset after having a shower.

She had no fresh clothes, and so the team had provided her with a pink hospital gown to wear.‘I want my trousers, where is my bra, I’ve got no bra on.’ It is clear she doesn’t feel right without her own clothes on. The one-to-one healthcare assistant assigned to this patient tells cialis best price her, ‘Your bra is dirty, do you want to wear that?. €™ She replies, ‘No I want a clean one. Where are my trousers?. I want them, I’ve lost them.’ The cialis best price healthcare assistant repeats the explaination that her clothes are dirty, and asks her, ‘Do you want your dirty ones?.

€™ She is very teary ‘No, I want my clean ones.’ The carer again explains that they are dirty.The cleaner who always works in the ward arrives to clean the floor and sweeps around the patient as she sits in her chair, and as he does this, he says ‘Hello’ to her. She is very teary and explains that cialis best price she has lost her clothes. The cleaner listens sympathetically as she continues ‘I am all confused. I have lost my clothes. I am all cialis best price confused.

How am I going to go to the shops with no clothes on!. €™ (site 5 day 5).This person experienced significant distress because of her absent clothes, but this would often be simply attributed to confusion, seen as a feature of her dementia. This then may solidify staff perceptions of cialis best price her condition. However, we need to consider that rather than her condition (her diagnosis of dementia) causing distress about clothing, the direction of causation may be the reverse. The absence of her own familiar clothing contributes significantly to her cialis best price distress and disorientation.

Others have argued that people with limited verbal capacity and limited cognitive comprehension will have a direct appreciation of the grounding familiarity of wearing their own clothes, which give a bodily felt notion of comfort and familiarity.18 47 Familiar clothing may then be an essential prop to anchor the wearer within a recognisable social and meaningful space. To simply see clothing from a task-oriented point of view, as fulfilling a simply mechanical function, and that all clothing, whether personal or institutional have the same value and role, might be to interpret the desire to wear familiar clothing as an ‘optional extra’. However, for those patients most at risk of disorientation and distress within an unfamiliar environment, it could be a cialis best price valuable necessity.Personal grooming and social statusIncluding in our consideration of clothing, we observed other aspects of the role of personal grooming. Personal grooming was notable by its absence beyond the necessary cleaning required for reasons of immediate hygiene and clinical need (such as the prevention of pressure ulcers). Older patients, and particular those living with dementia who were unable to carry out ‘self-care’ independently and were not able to request support with personal grooming, could, over their admission, become visibly unkempt and scruffy, hair could be left unwashed, uncombed and unstyled, while men could become hirsute through a lack of shaving.

The simple act of a visitor dressing and grooming a patient as they prepared for discharge could transform their appearance and cialis best price leave that patient looking more alert, appear to having increased capacity, than when sitting ungroomed in their bed or bedside chair.It is important to consider the impact of appearance and of personal care in the context of an acute ward. Kontos’ work examining life in a care home, referred to earlier, noted that people living with dementia may be acutely aware of transgressions in grooming and appearance, and noted many acts of self-care with personal appearance, such as stopping to apply lipstick, and conformity with high standards of table manners. Clothing, etiquette and personal grooming are important indicators of social class and hence an aspect of belonging and identity, and of how an individual relates cialis best price to a wider group. In Kontos’ findings, these rituals and standards of appearance were also observed in negative reactions, such as expressions of disgust, towards those residents who breached these standards. Hence, even in cases where an individual may be assessed as having considerable cognitive impairment, the importance of personal appearance must not be overlooked.For some patients within these wards, routine practices of everyday care at the bedside can increase the potential to influence whether they feel and appear socially acceptable.

The delivery of routine cialis best price timetabled care at the bedside can impact on people’s appearance in ways that may mark them out as failing to achieve accepted standards of embodied personhood. The task-oriented timetabling of mealtimes may have significance. It was a typical observed feature of this routine, when a mealtime has ended, that people living with dementia were left with visible signs and features of the mealtime through spillages on faces, clothes, bed sheets and bedsides, that leave them at risk of being assessed as less socially acceptable and marked as having reduced independence. For example, a volunteer attempts to ‘feed’ a person living with dementia, when she gives up and leave the bedside (this woman living with dementia has resisted her attempts and explicitly says ‘no’), remnants of the food is cialis best price left spread around her mouth (site E). In a different ward, the mealtime has ended, yet a large white plastic bib to prevent food spillages remains attached around the neck of a person living with dementia who is unable to remove it (site X).Of note, an adult would not normally wear a white plastic bib at home or in a restaurant.

It signifies a task-based apparel that is demeaning cialis best price to an individual’s social status. This example also contrasts poignantly with examples from Kontos’ work,20 such as that of a female who had little or no ability to verbalise, but who nonetheless would routinely take her pearl necklace out from under her bib at mealtimes, showing she retained an acute awareness of her own appearance and the ‘right’ way to display this symbol of individuality, femininity and status. Likewise, Kontos gives the example of a resident who at mealtimes ‘placed her hand on her chest, to prevent her blouse from touching the food as she leaned over her plate’.20Patients who are less robust, who have cognitive impairments, who may be liable to disorientation and whose agency and personhood are most vulnerable are thus those for whom appropriate and familiar clothing may be most advantageous. However, we found the ‘Matthew effect’ to be frequently in operation cialis best price. To those who have the least, even that which they have will be taken away.48 Although there may be institutional and organisational rationales for putting a plastic cover over a patient, leaving it on for an extended period following a meal may act as a marker of dehumanising loss of social status.

By being able to maintain familiar clothing and adornment to visually display social standing and identity, a person living with dementia may maintain a continuity of selfhood.However, it is also possible that dressing and grooming an older person may itself be a task-oriented institutional activity in certain contexts, as discussed by Lee-Treweek49 in the context of a nursing home preparing residents for ‘lounge view’ where visitors would see them, using residents to ‘create a visual product for others’ sometimes to the detriment of residents’ needs. Our observations regarding the importance of patient appearance must therefore be considered as part of the care of cialis best price the whole person and a significant feature of the institutional culture.Patient status and appearanceWithin these wards, a new grouping of class could become imposed on patients. We understand class not simply as socioeconomic class but as an indicator of the strata of local social organisation to which an individual belongs. Those in the lowest classes may have limited opportunities to participate in society, and we observed the ways in which this applied to the people living with dementia within cialis best price these acute wards. The differential impact of clothing as signifiers of social status has also been observed in a comparison of the white coat and the patient gown.4 It has been argued that while these both may help to mask individuality, they have quite different effects on social status on a ward.

One might say that the white coat increases visibility as a person of standing and the attribution of agency, the patient gown diminishes both of these. (Within these wards, although white coats were not to be found, the dress code of medical cialis best price staff did make them stand out. For male doctors, for example, the uniform rarely strayed beyond chinos paired with a blue oxford button down shirt, sleeves rolled up, while women wore a wider range of smart casual office wear.) Likewise, we observed that the same arrangement of attire could be attributed to entirely different meanings for older patients with or without dementia.Removal of clothes and exposureWithin these wards, we observed high levels of behaviour perceived by ward staff as people living with dementia displaying ‘resistance’ to care.50 This included ‘resistance’ towards institutional clothing. This could include pulling up or removing hospital gowns, removing institutional pyjama trousers or pulling up gowns, and standing with gowns untied and exposed at the back (although this last example is an unavoidable design feature of the clothing itself). Importantly, the removal of clothing was limited to institutional gowns and pyjamas cialis best price and we did not see any patients removing their own clothing.

This also included the removal of institutional bedding, with instances of patients pulling or kicking sheets from their bed. These acts could and was often cialis best price interpreted by ward staff as a patient’s ‘resistance’ to care. There was some variation in this interpretation. However, when an individual patient response to their institutional clothing and bedding was repeated during a shift, it was more likely to be conceived by the ward team as a form of resistance to their care, and responded to by the replacement and reinforcement of the clothing and bedding to recover the person.The removal of gowns, pyjamas and bedsheets often resulted in a patient exposing their genitalia or continence products (continence pads could be visible as a large diaper or nappy or a pad visibly held in place by transparent net pants), and as such, was disruptive to the norms and highly visible to staff and other visitor to these wards. Notably, unlike other behaviours cialis best price considered by staff to be disruptive or inappropriate within these wards such as shouting or crying out, the removal of bedsheets and the subsequent bodily exposure would always be immediately corrected, the sheet replaced and the patient covered by either the nurse or HCA.

The act of removal was typically interpreted by ward staff as representing a feature of the person’s dementia and staff responses were framed as an issue of patient dignity, or the dignity and embarrassment of other patients and visitors to the ward. However, such responses to cialis best price removal could lead to further cycles of removal and replacement, leading to an escalation of distress in the person. This was important, because the recording of ‘refusal of care’, or presumed ‘confusion’ associated with this, could have significant impacts on the care and discharge pathways available and prescribed for the individual patient.Consider the case of a woman living with dementia who is 90 years old (patient 1), in the example below. Despite having no immediate medical needs, she has been admitted to the MAU from a care home (following her husband’s stroke, he could no longer care for her). Across the previous evening and morning shift, she was shouting, refusing cialis best price all food and care and has received assistance from the specialist dementia care worker.

However, during this shift, she has become calmer following a visit from her husband earlier in the day, has since eaten and requested drinks. Her care home would not readmit her, which meant she was not able to be discharged from the unit (an overflow unit due to a high number of admissions to the emergency department during a patch of exceptionally hot weather) until alternative arrangements could be made by social services.During our observations, she remains calm for the first 2 hours. When she does talk, she is very loud and high pitched, but this cialis best price is normal for her and not a sign of distress. For staff working on this bay, their attention is elsewhere, because of the other six patients on the unit, one is ‘on suicide watch’ and another is ‘refusing their medication’ (but does not have a diagnosis of dementia). At 15:10 patient 1 begins to cialis best price remove her sheets:15:10.

The unit seems chaotic today. Patient 1 has begun to loudly drum her fingers on the tray table. She still has not been cialis best price brought more milk, which she requested from the HCA an hour earlier. The bay that patient 1 is admitted to is a temporary overflow unit and as a result staff do not know where things are. 1 has moved her sheets off her legs, her bare knees peeking out over the top of piled sheets.15:15.

The nurse in charge says, ‘Hello,’ when she cialis best price walks past 1’s bed. 1 looks across and smiles back at her. The nurse in charge explains to her that she needs to shuffle up cialis best price the bed. 1 asks the nurse about her husband. The nurse reminds 1 that her husband was there this morning and that he is coming back tomorrow.

1 says that he hasn’t been and she cialis best price does not believe the nurse.15:25. I overhear the nurse in charge question, under her breath to herself, ‘Why 1 has been left on the unit?. €™ 1 has started asking for somebody to come and see her. The nurse in charge tells cialis best price 1 that she needs to do some jobs first and then will come and talk to her.15:30. 1 has once again kicked her sheets off of her legs.

A social cialis best price worker comes onto the unit. 1 shouts, ‘Excuse me’ to her. The social worker replies, ‘Sorry I’m not staff, I don’t work here’ and leaves the bay.15:40. 1 keeps kicking sheets off her cialis best price bed, otherwise the unit is quiet. She now whimpers whenever anyone passes her bed, which is whenever anyone comes through the unit’s door.

1 is the only elderly patient on the unit. Again, the nurse in charge is heard sympathizing that this is cialis best price not the right place for her.16:30. A doctor approaches 1, tells her that she is on her list of people to say hello to, she is quite friendly. 1 tells her that she has been here for cialis best price 3 days, (the rest is inaudible because of pitch). The doctor tries to cover 1 up, raising her bed sheet back over the bed, but 1 loudly refuses this.

The doctor responds by ending the interaction, ‘See you later’, and leaves the unit.16:40. 1 attempts to talk to the new nurse assigned to cialis best price the unit. She goes over to 1 and says, ‘What’s up my darling?. €™ It’s hard to follow 1 now as she sounds very upset. The RN’s first instinct, like cialis best price with the doctor and the nurse in charge, is to cover up 1 s legs with her bed sheet.

When 1 reacts to this she talks to her and they agree to cover up her knees. 1 is talking cialis best price about how her husband won’t come and visit her, and still sounds really upset about this. [Site 3, Day 13]Of note is that between days 6 and 15 at this site, observed over a particularly warm summer, this unit was uncomfortably hot and stuffy. The need to be uncovered could be viewed as a reasonable response, and in fact was considered acceptable for patients without a classification of dementia, provided they were otherwise clothed, such as the hospital gown patient 1 was wearing. This is an example of an aspect of care where the choice and autonomy granted to patients assessed as having (or assumed to have) cognitive capacity is not cialis best price available to people who are considered to have impaired cognitive capacity (a diagnosis of dementia) and carries the additional moral judgements of the appropriateness of behaviour and bodily exposure.

In the example given above, the actions were linked to the patient’s resistance to their admission to the hospital, driven by her desire to return home and to be with her husband. Throughout observations over this 10-day period, patients perceived by staff as rational agents were allowed to strip down their bedding for comfort, whereas patients living with dementia who responded in this way were often viewed by staff as ‘undressing’, which would be interpreted as a feature of their condition, to be challenged and corrected by staff.Note how the same visual data triggered opposing interpretations of personal autonomy. Just as in the example above where distress over loss of familiar clothing may be interpreted as an aspect of confusion, yet lead to, or exacerbate, distress and disorientation cialis best price. So ‘deviant’ bedding may be interpreted, for some patients only, in ways that solidify notions of lack of agency and confusion, is another example of the Matthew effect48 at work through the organisational expectations of the clothed appearance of patients.Within wards, it is not unusual to see patients, especially those with a diagnosis of dementia or cognitive impairment, walking in the corridor inadvertently in some state of undress, typically exposed from behind by their hospital gowns. This exposure in itself is of course, an intrinsic functional feature of the design of the cialis best price flimsy back-opening institutional clothing the patient has been placed in.

This task-based clothing does not even fulfil this basic function very adequately. However, this inadvertent exposure could often be interpreted as an overt act of resistance to the ward and towards staff, especially when it led to exposed genitalia or continence products (pads or nappies).We speculate that the interpretation of resistance may be triggered by the visual prompt of disarrayed clothing and the meanings assumed to follow, where lack of decorum in attire is interpreted as indicating more general behavioural incompetence, cognitive impairment and/or standing outside the social order.DiscussionPrevious studies examining the significance of the visual, particularly Twigg and Buse’s work16–19 exploring the materialities of appearance, emphasise its key role in self-presentation, visibility, dignity and autonomy for older people and especially those living with dementia in care home settings. Similarly, care home studies have demonstrated that institutional clothing, designed to facilitate task-based care, can be potentially dehumanising or and distressing.25 26 Our findings resonate with this work, but find that for people living with dementia within a key site of care, the acute ward, the impact of institutional clothing on the individual patient living with dementia, is poorly recognised, but is significant for the quality and humanity of their care.Our ethnographic approach enabled the researchers to observe cialis best price the organisation and delivery of task-oriented fast-paced nature of the work of the ward and bedside care. Nonetheless, it should also be emphasised the instances in which staff such as HCAs and specialist dementia staff within these wards took time to take note of personal appearance and physical caring for patients and how important this can be for overall well-being. None of our observations should be read as critical of any individual staff, but reflects longstanding institutional cultures.Our previous work has examined how readily a person living with dementia within a hospital wards is vulnerable to dehumanisation,51 and to their behaviour within these wards being interpreted as a feature of their condition, rather than a response to the ways in which timetabled care is delivered at their bedside.50 We have also examined the ways in which visual stimuli within these wards in the form of signs and symbols indicating a diagnosis of dementia may inadvertently focus attention away from the individual patient and may incline towards simplified and inaccurate categorisation of both needs and the diagnostic category of dementia.52Our work supports the analysis of the two forms of attention arising from McGilchrist’s work.10 The institutional culture of the wards produces an organisational task-based technical attention, which we found appeared to compete with and reduce the opportunity for ward staff to seek a finer emotional attunement to the person they are caring for and their needs.

Focus on efficiency, pace and record keeping that measures individual task completion within a timetable of care may worsen cialis best price all these effects. Indeed, other work has shown that in some contexts, attention to visual appearance may itself be little more than a ‘task’ to achieve.49 McGilchrist makes clear, and we agree, that both forms of attention are vital, but more needs to be done to enable staff to find a balance.Previous work has shown how important appearance is to older people, and to people living with dementia in particular, both in terms of how they are perceived by others, but also how for this group, people living with dementia, clothing and personal grooming may act as a particularly important anchor into a familiar social world. These twin aspects of clothing and appearance—self-perception and perception by others—may be especially important in the fast-paced context of an acute ward environment, where patients living with dementia may be struggling with the impacts of an additional acute medical condition within in a highly timetabled and regimented and unfamiliar environment of cialis best price the ward, and where staff perceptions of them may feed into clinical assessments of their condition and subsequent treatment and discharge pathways. We have seen above, for instance, how behaviour in relation to appearance may be seen as ‘resisting care’ in one group of patients, but as the natural expression of personal preference in patients viewed as being without cognitive impairments. Likewise, personal grooming might impact favourably on a patient’s alertness, visibility and status within the ward.Prior work has demonstrated the importance of the medical gaze for the perceptions of the patient.

Other work has also shown how older people, and in particular people living with dementia, may be thought to be beyond concern for appearance, yet this does cialis best price not accurately reflect the importance of appearance we found for this patient group. Indeed, we argue that our work, along with the work of others such as Kontos,20 21 shows that if anything, visual appearance is especially important for people living with dementia particularly within clinical settings. In considering the task of washing the patient, Pols53 considered ‘dignitas’ in terms of aesthetic values, in comparison to humanitas conceived as citizen values of equality between persons. Attention to dignitas in the form of appearance may be a way of facilitating cialis best price the treatment by others of a person with humanitas, and helping to realise dignity of patients.Data availability statementNo data are available. Data are unavailable to protect anonymity.Ethics statementsPatient consent for publicationNot required.Ethics approvalEthics committee approval for the study was granted by the NHS Research Ethics Service (15/WA/0191).AcknowledgmentsThe authors acknowledge funding support from the NIHR.Notes1.

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Commentary. Grounded theory and the constant comparative method. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 316 (7137),:1064.39. Roy Suddaby (2006). €œFrom the editors.

What grounded theory is not.” Academy of management journal, 49(4). 633–642.40. Elizabeth L Sampson et al. (2009). €œDementia in the acute hospital.

Prospective cohort study of prevalence and mortality”. British Journal of Psychiatry,195(1). 61–66. Doi:10.1192/bjp.bp.108.05533541. C Pinkert and B Holle (2012).

€œPeople with dementia in acute hospitals. Literature review of prevalence and reasons for hospital admission”. Z. Gerontol. Geriatr.

45. 728–734.42. Robert E Herriott and William A. Firestone (1983) “Multisite qualitative policy research. Optimising description and generalizability”.

Education Research 12:14–1943. F Vogt (2002). €œNo ethnography without comparison. The methodological significance of comparison in ethnographic research” Studies in Education Ethnography 6:23–4244. Benjamin Saunders et al.

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Making sense of qualitative data. Complementary research strategies. Sage Publications, Inc.46. Paula Boddington and Katie Featherstone (2018). €œThe canary in the coal mine.

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€‹The families of four children who were tragically killed by a drunk and drugged driver are launching an annual forgiveness day with the support of the NSW Government.Siblings Antony, Angelina and Sienna Abdallah and their cousin Veronique Sakr were killed in February this year when an out-of-control ute mounted the footpath.The two families have taken the extraordinary step of forgiving the man behind the wheel as cialis best price an important step in their grieving process.The families want i4give Day to be held every year on the anniversary of the deaths in memory of the children.In launching this day, a memorial service will be held on the eve of the Generic cialis order online anniversary, Sunday, 31 January 2021, which will be live streamed to the public.Daniel Abdallah said he wants i4give Day to become one when people can remember the four children but it may also help others who have suffered.“We still feel pain and sorrow everyday, but forgiveness has helped to get rid of the anger and bitterness. It’s helped us get through each day and make sure we are there for our other children,” said Mr Abdallah.Both families say this is about honouring their four little saints in cialis best price heaven.“Our four children are now our four saints and this day is for them. Forgiveness is the greatest gift you can give cialis best price yourself and others. The more you cialis best price practise the better you become at it and it allows you live peacefully and to heal.” Leila Abdallah said.“Christmas Eve is a very hard time for us as it is also Angelina’s birthday. Even though it is tough, we’ll be celebrating Christmas for the rest of our cialis best price kids.”Veronique’s mother Bridget Sakr, said “Christmas can be a difficult time for many families.

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Notice http://bartlettconstructionllc.com/faq/ cialis delivery dubai. In compliance with the requirement for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, HRSA announces plans to submit an Information Collection Request (ICR), described below, to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Prior to submitting the ICR to OMB, HRSA seeks comments from the public regarding the burden estimate, below, or any other aspect of the ICR.

Comments on this ICR should be cialis delivery dubai received no later than December 15, 2020. Submit your comments to paperwork@hrsa.gov or mail the HRSA Information Collection Clearance Officer, Room 14N136B, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. Start Further Info To request more information on the proposed project or to obtain a copy of the data collection plans and draft instruments, email paperwork@hrsa.gov or call Lisa Wright-Solomon, the HRSA Information Collection Clearance Officer at (301) 443-1984.

End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information When submitting cialis delivery dubai comments or requesting information, please include the Start Printed Page 65834information request collection title for reference. Information Collection Request Title. Survey of Eligible Users of the National Practitioner Data Bank, OMB No.

0915-0366—Reinstatement With cialis delivery dubai Change. Abstract. HRSA plans to survey the users National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB).

The purpose of this survey is to assess the overall satisfaction of the eligible users of cialis delivery dubai the NPDB. This survey will evaluate the effectiveness of the NPDB as a flagging system, source of information, and its use in decision making. Furthermore, this survey will collect information from organizations and individuals who query the NPDB to understand and improve their user experience.

This survey is a reinstatement of the 2012 NPDB survey with some changes cialis delivery dubai. Need and Proposed Use of the Information. The survey will collect information regarding the participants' experiences of querying and reporting to the NPDB, perceptions of health care practitioners with reports, impact of NPDB reports on organizations' decision-making, and satisfaction with various NPDB products and services.

The survey will also be administered to health care practitioners that use the self-query service provided cialis delivery dubai by the NPDB. The self-queriers will be asked about their experiences of querying, the impact of having reports in the NPDB on their careers and health care organizations' perceptions, and their satisfaction with various NPDB products and services. Understanding self-queriers' satisfaction and their use of the information is an important component of the survey.

Proposed changes to this ICR include the following cialis delivery dubai. 1. In the proposed entity survey, there are 37 modules and 258 questions.

From the previous 2012 survey, there are 15 deleted questions and 13 new questions in addition to proposed cialis delivery dubai changes to 12 survey questions. 2. In the proposed self-query survey, there are 22 modules and 88 questions.

From the cialis delivery dubai previous 2012 survey, there are 5 deleted questions and 5 new questions in addition to proposed changes to two survey questions. Likely Respondents. Eligible users of the NPDB will be asked to complete a web-based survey.

Data gathered from the survey will be cialis delivery dubai compared with previous survey results. This survey will provide HRSA with the information necessary for research purposes and for improving the usability and effectiveness of the NPDB. Burden Statement.

Burden in this cialis delivery dubai context means the time expended by persons to generate, maintain, retain, disclose or provide the information requested. This includes the time needed to review instructions, to develop, acquire, install and utilize technology and systems for the purpose of collecting, validating and verifying information, processing and maintaining information, and disclosing and providing information, to train personnel and to be able to respond to a collection of information, to search data sources, to complete and review the collection of information, and to transmit or otherwise disclose the information. The total annual burden hours estimated for this Information Collection Request are summarized in the table below.

Total Estimated Annualized Burden HoursForm nameNumber of respondentsNumber of responses per respondentTotal responsesAverage burden per response (in hours)Total burden hoursNPDB Users Entities Respondents15,000115,0000.253,750NPDB Self-Query Respondents2,00012,0000.10200Total17,00017,0003,950 HRSA specifically requests comments on (1) the necessity and utility of the proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions, (2) the accuracy of the estimated burden, (3) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected, and (4) the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to minimize the information collection burden. Start Signature Maria G. Button, Director, Executive Secretariat.

End Signature End Supplemental Information [FR Doc.

Start Preamble cialis best price Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA), Department of Health and Human about his Services. Notice. In compliance with the requirement for opportunity for public comment on proposed data collection projects of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, HRSA announces plans to submit an Information Collection Request (ICR), described below, to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB). Prior to submitting the ICR to OMB, HRSA seeks comments from the public regarding cialis best price the burden estimate, below, or any other aspect of the ICR.

Comments on this ICR should be received no later than December 15, 2020. Submit your comments to paperwork@hrsa.gov or mail the HRSA Information Collection Clearance Officer, Room 14N136B, 5600 Fishers Lane, Rockville, MD 20857. Start Further Info To request more information on the proposed project or to obtain a copy of the data collection plans and draft instruments, email paperwork@hrsa.gov or call Lisa Wright-Solomon, the HRSA Information Collection Clearance Officer cialis best price at (301) 443-1984. End Further Info End Preamble Start Supplemental Information When submitting comments or requesting information, please include the Start Printed Page 65834information request collection title for reference.

Information Collection Request Title. Survey of cialis best price Eligible Users of the National Practitioner Data Bank, OMB No. 0915-0366—Reinstatement With Change. Abstract.

HRSA plans to survey the users cialis best price National Practitioner Data Bank (NPDB). The purpose of this survey is to assess the overall satisfaction of the eligible users of the NPDB. This survey will evaluate the effectiveness of the NPDB as a flagging system, source of information, and its use in decision making. Furthermore, this cialis best price survey will collect information from organizations and individuals who query the NPDB to understand and improve their user experience.

This survey is a reinstatement of the 2012 NPDB survey with some changes. Need and Proposed Use of the Information. The survey cialis best price will collect information regarding the participants' experiences of querying and reporting to the NPDB, perceptions of health care practitioners with reports, impact of NPDB reports on organizations' decision-making, and satisfaction with various NPDB products and services. The survey will also be administered to health care practitioners that use the self-query service provided by the NPDB.

The self-queriers will be asked about their experiences of querying, the impact of having reports in the NPDB on their careers and health care organizations' perceptions, and their satisfaction with various NPDB products and services. Understanding self-queriers' satisfaction and their use of the information is an important component of the cialis best price survey. Proposed changes to this ICR include the following. 1.

In the proposed entity survey, there are 37 modules cialis best price and 258 questions. From the previous 2012 survey, there are 15 deleted questions and 13 new questions in addition to proposed changes to 12 survey questions. 2. In the proposed self-query survey, there are 22 cialis best price modules and 88 questions.

From the previous 2012 survey, there are 5 deleted questions and 5 new questions in addition to proposed changes to two survey questions. Likely Respondents. Eligible users of the NPDB will be asked to complete a web-based survey cialis best price. Data gathered from the survey will be compared with previous survey results.

This survey will provide HRSA with the information necessary for research purposes and for improving the usability and effectiveness of the NPDB. Burden cialis best price Statement. Burden in this context means the time expended by persons to generate, maintain, retain, disclose or provide the information requested. This includes the time needed to review instructions, to develop, acquire, install and utilize technology and systems for the purpose of collecting, validating and verifying information, processing and maintaining information, and disclosing and providing information, to train personnel and to be able to respond to a collection of information, to search data sources, to complete and review the collection of information, and to transmit or otherwise disclose the information.

The total annual burden hours estimated for this Information cialis best price Collection Request are summarized in the table below. Total Estimated Annualized Burden HoursForm nameNumber of respondentsNumber of responses per respondentTotal responsesAverage burden per response (in hours)Total burden hoursNPDB Users Entities Respondents15,000115,0000.253,750NPDB Self-Query Respondents2,00012,0000.10200Total17,00017,0003,950 HRSA specifically requests comments on (1) the necessity and utility of the proposed information collection for the proper performance of the agency's functions, (2) the accuracy of the estimated burden, (3) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the information to be collected, and (4) the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology to minimize the information collection burden. Start Signature Maria G. Button, Director, Executive Secretariat.